Bungku–Tolaki languages

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Linguistic classificationAustronesian
  • Eastern
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The Bungku–Tolaki languages (also known as Bungku–Mori in older literature[2]) are a group of languages spoken primarily in South East Sulawesi province, Indonesia, and in neighboring parts of Central and South Sulawesi provinces.


Mead (1998:117) presents the following tree-model classification for Bungku–Tolaki. This classification is based on the historical-comparative method in linguistics.

This classification supersedes Mead (1999), an earlier classification proposed by Mead in 1994. Based on a lexicostatistical comparison, his earlier classification proposed 'Bungku,' 'Mori,' and 'Tolaki' as primary subdivisions under Bungku–Tolaki. In view of more recent evidence from shared sound change and innovations in pronoun sets, the unity of the proposed Mori group (comprising Bahonsuai, Mori Bawah, Mori Atas, Padoe and Tomadino) could not be maintained. Additional information can be found at Mori language.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bungku–Tolaki". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Noorduyn J. (1991). A Critical Survey of Studies on the Languages of Sulawesi. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Further reading[edit]

  • Mead, David. 1998. Proto–Bungku-Tolaki: Reconstruction of its phonology and aspects of its morphosyntax . PhD dissertation. Houston: Rice University.
  • Mead, David. 1999. The Bungku–Tolaki languages of south-eastern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Series D-91. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.