CCL20

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CCL20
Protein CCL20 PDB 1m8a.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesCCL20, CKb4, Exodus, LARC, MIP-3-alpha, MIP-3a, MIP3A, SCYA20, ST38, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, C-C motif chemokine ligand 20
External IDsOMIM: 601960 MGI: 1329031 HomoloGene: 3375 GeneCards: CCL20
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 2 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 2 (human)[1]
Chromosome 2 (human)
Genomic location for CCL20
Genomic location for CCL20
Band2q36.3Start227,805,739 bp[1]
End227,817,564 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CCL20 205476 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_004591
NM_001130046

NM_001159738
NM_016960

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001123518
NP_004582

NP_001153210
NP_058656

Location (UCSC)Chr 2: 227.81 – 227.82 MbChr 1: 83.12 – 83.12 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 (MIP3A) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes and weakly attracts neutrophils.[5] CCL20 is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues via chemoattraction of lymphocytes and dendritic cells towards the epithelial cells surrounding these tissues. CCL20 elicits its effects on its target cells by binding and activating the chemokine receptor CCR6.[6]

Gene expression of CCL20 can be induced by microbial factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ, and down-regulated by IL-10.[7] CCL20 is expressed in several tissues with highest expression observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, liver, appendix, and fetal lung and lower levels in thymus, testis, prostate and gut.[5][8] The gene for CCL20 (scya20) is located on chromosome 2 in humans.[9]

Recent research [10] in an animal model of multiple sclerosis known as experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) demonstrated that regional neural activation can create "gates" for pathogenic CD4+ T cells to enter the CNS by increasing CCL20 expression, especially at L5. Sensory nerve stimulation, elicited by using muscles in the leg or electrical stimulation as in Arima et al., 2012, activates sympathetic neurons whose axons run through the dorsal root ganglia containing cell bodies of the stimulated afferent sensory nerve. Sympathetic neuronal activity activates IL-6 amplifier resulting in increased regional CCL20 expression and subsequent pathogenic CD4+ T cell accumulation at the same spinal cord level. CCL20 expression was observed to be dependent on IL-6 amplifier activation, which is dependent on NF-κB and STAT3 activation. This research provides evidence for a critical role for CCL20 in autoimmune pathogenesis of the central nervous system.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115009 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026166 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b Hieshima K, Imai T, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J, Kusuda J, Tei H, Sakaki Y, Takatsuki K, Miura R, Yoshie O, Nomiyama H (1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC) expressed in liver. Chemotactic activity for lymphocytes and gene localization on chromosome 2". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (9): 5846–5853. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.9.5846. PMID 9038201.
  6. ^ Baba M, Imai T, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, Takagi S, Hieshima K, Nomiyama H, Yoshie O (1997). "Identification of CCR6, the specific receptor for a novel lymphocyte-directed CC chemokine LARC". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (23): 14893–14898. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.23.14893. PMID 9169459.
  7. ^ Schutyser E, Struyf S, Menten P, Lenaerts JP, Conings R, Put W, Wuyts A, Proost P, Van Damme J (2000). "Regulated production and molecular diversity of human liver and activation-regulated chemokine/macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha from normal and transformed cells". J. Immunol. 165 (8): 4470–7. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.8.4470. PMID 11035086.
  8. ^ Rossi DL, Vicari AP, Franz-Bacon K, McClanahan TK, Zlotnik A (1997). "Identification through bioinformatics of two new macrophage proinflammatory human chemokines: MIP-3alpha and MIP-3beta". J. Immunol. 158 (3): 1033–6. PMID 9013939.
  9. ^ Nelson RT, Boyd J, Gladue RP, Paradis T, Thomas R, Cunningham AC, Lira P, Brissette WH, Hayes L, Hames LM, Neote KS, McColl SR (2001). "Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, and chromosome localization". Genomics. 73 (1): 28–37. doi:10.1006/geno.2001.6482. PMID 11352563.
  10. ^ Regional Neural Activation Defines a Gateway for Autoreactive T Cells to Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier | author = Arima, Yasunobu; Harada, Masaya; Kamimura, Daisuke; Park, Jin-Haeng; Kawano, Fuminori; Yull, Fiona E.; Kawamoto, Tadafumi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Betz, Ulrich A.K.; Marquez, Gabriel; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Toshio; Murakami, Masaaki | Cell doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.01.022 (volume 148 issue 3 pp.447 - 457)

Further reading[edit]

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