Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CISHgene.CISHorthologs have been identified in most mammals with sequenced genomes. CISH controls T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, and variations of CISH with certain SNPs are associated with susceptibility to bacteremia, tuberculosis and malaria.
The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS box domain. The protein thus belongs to the cytokine-induced STAT inhibitor (CIS), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) or STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. CIS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling.
CISH is induced by T cell receptor (TCR) ligation and negatively regulates it by targeting the critical signaling intermediate PLC-gamma-1 for degradation. The deletion of Cish in effector T cells has been shown to augment TCR signaling and subsequent effector cytokine release, proliferation and survival. The adoptive transfer of tumor-specific effector T cells knocked out or knocked down for CISH resulted in a significant increase in functional avidity and long-term tumor immunity. There are no changes in activity or phosphorylation of Cish's purported target, STAT5 in either the presence or absence of Cish.
Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty four tests were carried out on mutant mice, however no significant abnormalities were observed.
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