C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is an 8.7 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL10gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family.
The three-dimensional crystal structure of this chemokine has been determined under 3 different conditions to a resolution of up to 1.92 Å. The Protein Data Bank accession codes for the structures of CXCL10 are 1lv9, 1o7y, and 1o80.
CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 have proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting an underlining pathophysiological relation between levels of these chemokines and the development of adverse cardiac remodeling.
Baseline pre-treatment plasma levels of CXCL10 are elevated in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotypes 1 or 4 who do not achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after completion of antiviral therapy. CXCL10 in plasma is mirrored by intrahepatic CXCL10 mRNA, and both strikingly predict the first days of elimination of HCV RNA (“first phase decline”) during interferon/ribavirin therapy for all HCV genotypes. This also applies for patients co-infected with HIV, where pre-treatment IP-10 levels below 150 pg/mL are predictive of a favorable response, and may thus be useful in encouraging these otherwise difficult-to-treat patients to initiate therapy. The pathogen Leishmaniamajor utilizes a protease, GP63, that cleaves CXCL10, implicating CXCL10 in host defense mechanisms of certain intracellular pathogens like Leishmania.
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