California Highway Patrol
|California Highway Patrol|
CHP Door Shield
|Motto||Safety, Service, and Security|
|Formed||August 14, 1929|
|Employees||10,870 (as of 2019)|
|Annual budget||$2 billion (as of 2014)|
|Operations jurisdiction||California, U.S.|
|Map of California Highway Patrol's jurisdiction.|
|Size||163,696 square miles (423,970 km2)|
|Population||39.536.653 (2017 est.)|
|Legal jurisdiction||As per operations jurisdiction|
|Governing body||California State Legislature|
|Headquarters||Sacramento, California, United States|
|Officers||7,598 (as of 2019)|
|Civilians||3,272 (as of 2019)|
|Parent agency||California State Transportation Agency (CALSTA)|
|Commands||8 Field Divisions|
16 Commercial Enforcement Facilities
103 Area Offices
|Patrol cars||Ford Explorer- based Police Interceptor Utility Vehicle|
|Patrol cars||Dodge Charger- Police|
|Motorcycles||BMW R1150 RT-P|
The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is a law enforcement agency of California. The CHP has patrol jurisdiction over all California highways and can act as the state police. They also have jurisdiction over city roads, and may conduct law enforcement procedures there.
The California State Legislature established the California Highway Patrol as a branch of the Division of Motor Vehicles in the Department of Public Works, with legislation signed by Governor C. C. Young on August 14, 1929. It was reestablished as a separate department by Governor Earl Warren in 1947. The CHP gradually assumed increased responsibility beyond the enforcement of the State Vehicle Act and eventually merged with the smaller California State Police in 1995. It is currently organized as part of the California State Transportation Agency (CALSTA).
In addition to its highway patrol duties, the CHP also provides other services including protecting state buildings and facilities (most notably the California State Capitol) and bodyguarding state officials. The CHP also works with municipal and federal law enforcement agencies, providing assistance in investigations, patrol and other aspects of law enforcement.
- 1 Highway patrol duties
- 2 Special responsibilities
- 3 Pay and pensions
- 4 Organization
- 5 Rank Structure
- 6 Traditions
- 7 Seven points of the CHP badge
- 8 Code of honor
- 9 Fallen officers
- 10 Mexico Liaison Unit
- 11 Scandal/Newhall Incident
- 12 Mergers
- 13 Weapons
- 14 Vehicles
- 15 Rogue officers
- 16 Media references
- 17 Programs
- 18 Origins of the California Highway Patrol's name
- 19 See also
- 20 References
- 21 External links
Highway patrol duties
The agency is responsible for law enforcement on all California state routes (including all freeways and expressways), U.S. Highways, Interstate Highways and all public roads in unincorporated and incorporated portions of a county. Local police or the local sheriff's department having a contract with an incorporated city are primarily responsible for investigating and enforcing traffic laws in incorporated cities, but any peace officer of the CHP can still enforce any state law anywhere within the state, even though the agency's primary mission is related to transportation. Furthermore, CHP officers act as bailiffs for the California Supreme Court and California Court of Appeal, as well as providing security at buildings occupied by the State of California.
CHP officers enforce the California Vehicle Code, pursue fugitives spotted on the highways, and attend to all significant obstructions and accidents within their jurisdiction. They patrol in various vehicles including Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptors, Dodge Charger (LX)s, Chevrolet Camaros, BMW R1150RT‑P motorcycles, Cessna 206 airplanes, and helicopters which include Bell OH‑58As, Bell 206L‑IVs and Eurocopter AS‑350B‑3s. Beginning in 2013, the CHP switched to the Ford Explorer-based Ford Police Interceptor Utility fleet vehicles because the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor was being phased out of production.
CHP officers are responsible for investigating and disposing of car accidents, disabled vehicles, debris, and other impediments to the free flow of traffic. They are often the first responders at the scene of an accident (or obstruction), and in turn summon paramedics, firefighters, tow truck drivers or Caltrans personnel. The CHP files traffic collision reports for state highways and within unincorporated areas. The CHP responds to and investigates all accidents involving school buses throughout the state including incorporated cities.
CHP also has Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Teams (MAIT) for the investigation of traffic collisions.
The CHP also publishes data on traffic accidents in California from a database called SWITRS (Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System).
After the September 11, 2001 attacks the CHP became responsible for securing and patrolling a number of potential terrorist targets in California. These sites include nuclear power plants, government buildings, and key infrastructure sites. The CHP also maintains a SWAT team on 24‑hour stand‑by to respond to any terrorist activity.
In September 2005, the CHP sent its two Mobile Field Forces (highly trained and equipped quick reaction/deployment teams for civil disturbances and/or disasters) to the Gulf Coast to assist in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Before the United States National Guard arrived, the CHP had four patrol helicopters over Marianna, Florida, more than eighty vehicles on the ground, and more than 200 officers and other staff, including a SWAT team, deployed in New Orleans.
The CHP also has officers assigned to drug task forces and other criminal investigative task forces throughout the state, and maintains highly trained Warrant Service Teams (WST) throughout each of its Divisions. These teams serve high-risk felony arrest and search warrants generated as a result of CHP investigations, and the WST assists local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies to serve the same type of high-risk warrants. CHP investigators also work closely with agents of the State Bureau of Investigation, Office of the Attorney General.
One of the California Highway Patrol's additional responsibilities includes a governor protection detail.
Somewhat controversially, the cities of Oakland and Stockton have contracted with the California Highway Patrol to assist their police departments with local patrol duties, including traffic stops and responding to 911 calls.
Pay and pensions
Average officer pay was $118,000 in 2014. By law, salaries are set by an average of the five largest police departments in the state. In 2012, the top paid CHP officer received $483,581, 44 other officers earning over $200,000, and over 5,000 officers receiving at over $100,000. In 2011, CHP officers earned $82.4 million in overtime, triple the amount in the second largest state, and with one officer earning over $93,000 in overtime alone. Officers are strictly prohibited from working more than 16.5 hours at a time before having to take a minimum 8-hour break.
In 1999, Governor Gray Davis signed SB 400, which allowed CHP officers to retire at age 50 and continue receiving as much as 90% of their peak pay as a pension. This raised the pension earned for 30 years of service from an average of $62,218 to $96,270. Officers' average retirement age is 54. The private market cost for a similar annuity is $2.6 million. Benefits promised by the State of California are currently $241 billion greater than funds it has actually committed to CalPERS.
The CHP is led by the Commissioner, who is appointed by the Governor of California. The Deputy Commissioner is also appointed by the Governor and the Assistant Commissioners are appointed by the Commissioner.
- Commissioner of the Highway Patrol – Warren Stanley
- Deputy Commissioner of the Highway Patrol – Scott Silsbee
- Professional Standards and Ethics Division
- Office of Community Outreach & Media Relations
- Assistant Commissioner, Field Operations – Nick Norton
- Northern Division
- Valley Division
- Golden Gate Division
- Central Division
- Southern Division
- Border Division
- Coastal Division
- Inland Division
- Protective Services Division
- Office of Air Operations
- State Security Division
- Assistant Commissioner, Staff Operations- Amanda Ray
- Office of Employee Safety and Assistance
- Administrative Services Division
- Enforcement & Planning Division
- Information Management Division
- Special Counsel to the Commissioner
- Deputy Commissioner of the Highway Patrol – Scott Silsbee
The CHP Explorer Program is a program for teenagers ages 15-21 who are interested in a career with the CHP. The program was created in January 1990. As of 2019, there are over 500 CHP Explorers across the state of California. The requirements to get in to the CHP Explorer Program are the following: • Be 15-21 years of age. • Have a strong interest in law enforcement. • Maintain a minimum 2.0 GPA or higher in school. • No Felony Convictions, Drug or Alcohol Use. • Must pass a background check and interview. For more information, contact your local CHP Office.
Just like sworn officers, the CHP Explorer Program also has a rank structure as well. The following information is listed here.
•Explorer Cadet - Explorer Cadet is the lowest rank you start out at when joining the program.
•Explorer - To be promoted to the rank of Explorer, an Explorer Cadet must successfully graduate the Level 1 Academy, Level 2 Academy, and the Level 3 Academy. For more information on these academies, it will be at the bottom of this section.
•Explorer Sergeant - To promote to Explorer Sergeant, you must graduate the Level 1,2,and 3 Academy. Upon promoting,the Explorer will wear three blue chevron stripes on both sides of his or her uniform collar. The job of an Explorer Sergeant is to supervise, provide leadership and guidance to new Explorers.
• Explorer Lieutenant - To promote to Explorer Lieutenant, you must graduate the Level 1,2,and 3 Academy. Upon promoting, the Explorer will wear one gold bar on his or her uniform collar. The job of an Explorer Lieutenant is to assist in managing the Explorer Post. Some Explorer Posts throughout the state are commanded by an Explorer Lieutenant.
•Explorer Captain - To promote to Explorer Captain, you must graduate the Level 1,2,and 3 Academy. Upon promoting, the Explorer will wear two gold bars on his or her uniform collar. This is also the highest rank that one can achieve in the CHP Explorer Program. The job of an Explorer Captain is to be responsible for daily operations of the Explorer Post. This includes giving assignments, and also leading the post to be running smoothly and successfully.
• Level 1 Academy - Typically held at a local area office, this academy is more than 24 hours of instruction. This includes learning about the vehicle code, patrol car familiarity, radio communications/protocol, and leadership/ethics. Upon completion of the Level 1 Academy, Explorers are granted the privilege to go on ride alongs with officers during their shift.
• Level 2 Academy - Typically held at a local area office, this academy is more than 16 hours of instruction. This academy is learning all about CPR and First Aid. This academy will help Explorers assisting at accident scenes involving injuries during ride alongs. This academy is renewed annually by all Explorers of all ranks.
• Level 3 Academy - This academy is held every single summer at the CHP Academy in West Sacramento. The academy is a one week live in academy and gives Explorers a taste of what's it like to be a real cadet. Upon completion of the Level 3 Academy, Explorers will receive a cloth explorer badge that will be sewn on to their uniform. Explorers will also be eligible to promote within their post as well. (Annually)
• Level 4 Academy - This academy is held every single summer at the CHP Academy in West Sacramento. Explorers must be at least 19.5 years old and in excellent health to participate. The academy is a one week live in academy and gives Explorers a taste of what's it like to be a real cadet. Explorers are also given the rare opportunity to participate in firearms training at the range and also driving a patrol car at the Emergency Vehicle Operations Course(EVOC). All Level 4 Explorers will also be shown the application process to become an officer.
CHP uniforms are traditionally khaki-colored with campaign hat and blue-and-gold trouser stripe. Command officers wear a tan combination cap. The dress uniform includes a forest green jacket and royal blue tie (bow tie for motor officers). Cold weather and utility uniforms are dark blue.
Leather gear is black basketweave leather with brass snaps and buckles.
Standard traffic enforcement patrol vehicles are required by state law to have a white door with, in the case of the CHP, a star. The CHP operates traditional black and white as well as all-white patrol vehicles.
The California Highway Patrol is one of the few organizations to continue to use the older toll-free "Zenith 1‑2000" number. With the falling cost of telephone area code 800 and 888 numbers, most organizations have chosen to switch to one of the newer numbers and discontinue use of the Zenith service, which requires operator assistance. The CHP's traditions include its own radio codes, widely adopted by local agencies. The most important is 11‑99, which signifies that an officer needs emergency assistance or that an officer is down.
In 1981, a charitable foundation called the 11‑99 Foundation was founded to provide benefits and scholarships to officers and their families. The members of the foundation's board of directors have provided over $16 million in assistance to current, retired, and those fallen in the line of duty CHP employees and their families. The organization's name is taken from the radio code. There has been some mild controversy over whether the issuing of metal license plate frames to members of this foundation, often seen installed around the rear license plate, might result in any special treatment of member motorists by CHP officers.
Seven points of the CHP badge
The badge of the California Highway Patrol is a gold seven-point star with the California state seal in the center, and a ribbon with the rank of the badge holder on the bottom. The star points have oak leaves in them, and badges are made of 14k gold-filled brass. A patch facsimile is worn on tactical and utility uniforms, and optionally on the cold weather jacket. The cap piece is a golden winged wheel with banners stating the agency name.
- Character: The qualities of moral strength, vigor, and stability (11:00)
- Integrity: The moral defense against corrupting influence (1:00)
- Knowledge: Acquaintance with facts and laws, combined with the awareness and understanding that sustain an officer through daily duties (9:00)
- Judgment: The ability to apply knowledge to the best advantage of all concerned (3:00)
- Honor: Highest esteem for the principles upon which the California Highway Patrol has been built (7:00)
- Loyalty: Faithfulness to the precepts of the Highway Patrol and to fellow officers (5:00)
- Courtesy: Respect for law and order and for the individual (6:00)
Code of honor
The CHP has a code of honor. It states:
I, a member of the California Highway Patrol, subscribe in word and deed to the following:
To serve the United States of America and the State of California honestly, and conscientiously; and fulfill my oath as a soldier of the law;
To uphold and maintain the honor and integrity of the California Highway Patrol;
Be loyal to my fellow officers; respect and obey my seniors in rank; and enforce the law without fear, favor, or discrimination;
Assist those in peril or distress, and, if necessary, lay down my life rather than swerve from the path of duty;
My personal conduct shall at all times be above reproach and I will never knowingly commit any act that will in any way bring discredit upon the California Highway Patrol or any member thereof;
To all of this I do solemnly pledge my sacred honor as an Officer of the California Highway Patrol.
Since its inception in 1929, 226 officers have died in the line of duty. The top three frequent causes of line of duty deaths to date are (in order of cause): Automobile/Motorcycle Accidents, Gunfire, and Vehicular Assault (i.e., struck by drunk driver, reckless driving, or hearing and/or visually impaired drivers). 1964 was the deadliest year, in which eight officers died in the line of duty; 1970 and 1978 were the second deadliest years, in which seven officers died in the line of duty.
Mexico Liaison Unit
The "Mexico Liaison Unit" is a Border Division Unit based in San Diego. Since the CHP has no jurisdiction directly in Mexico, officers from the Unit work closely with Mexican authorities to recover stolen vehicles and assist with other law enforcement issues. The purpose of the "Mexico Liaison Unit" is to develop and maintain positive working relations with Mexican authorities in order to:
- Locate and identify stolen U.S. vehicles taken to Mexico
- Identify vehicle thieves and ensure their prosecution, either in Mexico or California
- Provide assistance to Mexican and U.S. authorities
The unit was originally established in 1958 and only consisted of one officer. It was discontinued in the 1970s, and reestablished in 1980. The unit now consists of one sergeant and six officers, all of whom are fluent in Spanish.
Officer Peyer Scandal
In 1988, CHP officer Craig Peyer, a 13-year veteran of the CHP, was convicted for the first-degree murder of 20-year-old Cara Knott, who was pulled over for an alleged traffic violation by Peyer on December 27, 1986, in a marked CHP patrol vehicle. Peyer attempted inappropriate advances on Knott, but Knott rebuffed him, leading Peyer to bludgeon her with his flashlight, strangle her to death with a rope, and then toss her corpse over the abandoned bridge on which Peyer had directed Knott to stop.
Subsequent investigative media efforts uncovered multitudes of young women who experienced similar inappropriate advances from Peyer during traffic stops. A documented pattern in CHP records of Peyer stopping and detaining young women similar to Knott eventually surfaced during an internal investigation, but all complaints filed with the internal affairs department of CHP against Peyer by these women were dismissed due to Peyer's "stellar" reputation within CHP. The traffic tickets from the night of the Knott incident, as well the officer logbook, were discovered to contain false information authored by Peyer. As of 2014, Peyer is still in prison denying he killed Knott. His next parole hearing is set for 2027.
On April 6, 1970, four California Highway Patrol officers were killed in a 4½‑minute shootout in the Newhall region of Southern California. The incident is a landmark in CHP history because of both its emotional impact and the procedural and doctrinal reforms implemented by the CHP in the incident's aftermath.
The shootout occurred in a restaurant parking lot just before midnight. Officers Walt Frago and Roger Gore were alerted by radio of a vehicle carrying someone who brandished a weapon. They spotted the car, fell in behind, called for backup, and began the stop procedure. When the suspects' vehicle came to a halt in the parking lot, the driver was instructed to step out of the vehicle and spread his hands on the hood. Gore approached him and Frago moved to the passenger side. The passenger side door suddenly swung open and the passenger sprung out, firing at Frago, who fell with two shots in his chest. The gunman, later identified as Jack Twinning, then turned and fired once at Gore, who returned fire. In that moment the driver, Bobby Davis, turned and shot Gore twice at close range. Both officers died instantly.
When Officers James Pence and George Alleyn drove in moments later, they could not see suspects or other officers, but both immediately came under fire. Pence put out an 11‑99 call ("officer needs help, emergency") then took cover behind the passenger door. Alleyn grabbed his shotgun, and positioned himself behind the driver-side door. Both officers were mortally wounded in the ensuing exchange, and one suspect was hit.
Civilian Gary Kness saw the gunfight as he drove along The Old Road and stopped to help. Kness ran toward the gun battle as shots were still being fired.
"I was driving to work as a computer operator when I turned the corner on the Old Road and saw the gunfire, I saw two CHP cars and a red car. I always say my brain said to get out of the way, but my feet ran the wrong way."
Kness tried to drag the mortally wounded Alleyn out of the line of fire. When one of the two assailants began firing at him, Kness grabbed a CHP shotgun lying on the ground and aimed it at one of the gunmen. The shotgun was empty, however. Kness grabbed Alleyn's service pistol from the ground, aimed with both hands and fired, hitting gunman Bobby Augusta Davis in the chest. When Davis kept advancing toward him, Kness tried to shoot again, but the CHP pistol was out of bullets.
"I was upset there weren't four or five more rounds in there. After that, I ran and jumped in a ditch. The dumbest thing is, I still had the service revolver in my hand. I was afraid when more police came they'd think I was one of the gunman. So I put it behind me and said, 'They went that way.'"
Suspects Jack Twinning and Bobby Davis escaped, later abandoned their vehicle and then split up. For nine hours, officers blanketed the area searching for the killers. Twinning broke into a house and briefly held a man hostage. Officers used tear gas before storming the house, but Twinning committed suicide with the shotgun he stole from Frago. Davis was captured, stood trial and convicted on four counts of murder. He was sentenced to death, but in 1972, the California Supreme Court declared the death penalty to be cruel and unusual punishment and in 1973, the court commuted his sentence to life in prison.
Of the incident, Ronald Reagan, who was governor of California at the time, said the following words: "If anything worthwhile comes of this tragedy, it should be the realization by every citizen that often the only thing that stands between them and losing everything they hold dear ... is the man wearing a badge."
An emotionally charged follow-up investigation followed the incident, but eventually led to a complete revision of procedures during high-risk and felony stops. Firearms procedures have also changed fundamentally due to this incident, and physical methods of arrest have been improved. The police baton and pepper spray have been added to the officer's arsenal, with more in‑depth training in their use.
The 25th anniversary of the Newhall Incident was observed on April 6, 1995, at the present Newhall Area office, where a brick memorial pays tribute to Officers James Pence (6885), Roger Gore (6547), Walt Frago (6520) and George Alleyn (6290). The memorial once stood at the former Newhall office, but was rebuilt at the new site, about one mile (1.6 km) from the scene of the slayings.
On July 12, 1995, the California State Police, which was a separate agency, was merged into the CHP, thus greatly expanding the agency's mandate. In addition to safety on the state highway system, it is now responsible for the safety of all elected state officials and all people who work in or are utilizing a state building in California, such as the State Capitol Building in Sacramento.
It has also been discussed to merge the Law Enforcement Division of the California Department of Fish and Wildlife into the California Highway Patrol. By doing so, this may allow for better protection of California's environment and natural resources. The underfunded CDFW Law Enforcement Division has faced low numbers of Game Wardens also known as Wildlife Officers for the last ten years; a similar idea is already in place in Oregon and Alaska, where the Oregon State Police and Alaska State Troopers serve as game wardens under a separate fish and wildlife division within the two departments.
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The current department issued firearm for CHP officers is the Smith & Wesson M&P40, which replaced the Smith & Wesson Model 4006 TSW in 2017. Each CHP patrol car is equipped with a Remington Model 870 Police Magnum 12-gauge shotgun and a SIG Sauer SIGM400 rifle in .223 Remington. Less-lethal weapons include oleoresin capsicum spray, less-lethal shotguns and side-handle batons. The ASP, Inc. Expandable Straight Baton is authorized as an optional piece of equipment. Additionally, all officers are authorized to carry a Taser. As of early 2009, officers have been allowed to mount weapon-mounted lights to their pistols.
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When motor vehicles in California were first seen as needing legislation, law enforcement agencies began to patrol using motorcycles, cars and trucks.:9 Motorcycle officers in 1920 Fresno, started a group to assist each other and promote road safety – the Joaquin Valley Traffic Officer's Association – led by Harry Wilson who they elected as president. They renamed themselves the California Association of Highway Patrolmen in 1921, and became the California Highway Patrol in 1927 under the auspices of the Department of Motor Vehicles.:10
Through the public competitive bidding process, the Harley-Davidson motorcycle was selected as the primary enforcement motorcycle for the California Highway Patrol in 2013.
These replacement enforcement motorcycles will replenish the Department's aging motorcycle fleet. In a cost-saving move, the CHP previously deferred the purchase of replacement motorcycles and has not purchased enforcement motorcycles since January 14, 2011. As a result, approximately 20 percent of the current fleet has logged 100,000 plus miles – well exceeding the manufacturer's warranty.
CHP's motorcycle program enhances public safety. Motorcycle officers are able to effectively enforce traffic laws in areas in which enforcement by four-wheel vehicles is impractical. Motorcycles can access scenes of accidents and natural disasters more quickly and work commute traffic in way that is unique to the motorcycle. Additionally, motorcycles play a special role in dignitary protection.
The CHP has approximately 415 enforcement motorcycles working the roads throughout California. The CHP purchased 121 of the Harley-Davidson enforcement motorcycles to replace motorcycles that have high mileage or have been damaged in traffic collisions. As of June 2013, approximately 22 percent of the CHP's motorcycle fleet is over 100,000 miles with more than half of those over 125,000 miles. On average, a CHP enforcement motorcycle is driven 14,000 miles per year.
The Harley-Davidson FLHTP Enforcement Motorcycle price per unit is $28,381.00. This includes a 3-year/60,000-mile warranty that covers all service and repairs.
Early motorcycles used included Indian, Harley-Davidson and Henderson manufactured bikes during the 1920s and 30s;:18, 20, 23 though by 1941, the main manufacturers used at the training academy were Harley-Davidson and Indian.:30
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The Department of General Services is responsible for selecting a vehicle based on price, performance and payload capacity for the CHP. The bid specifications require a pursuit-rated, rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive that can carry at least 1,500 pounds, the approximate weight of four officers, their equipment, and the police vehicle equipment.
As of July 2013, CHP had not purchased patrol vehicles since January 2011 and their fleet was rapidly aging. On average, CHP patrol vehicles are driven 33,000 miles per year. Half of their 2,153-vehicle fleet had over 100,000 miles as of June 2013. After 100,000 miles, the warranty on CHP vehicles expires, forcing CHP to pay for maintenance costs. In July 2013, the CHP was authorized to purchase up to 751 new vehicles to begin replacing its aging fleet, starting with cars that have the highest mileage.
Through a public, competitive bidding process, the Ford Police Interceptor Utility Vehicle (Explorer) was selected as the new enforcement vehicle for the CHP in 2013. The Ford Police Interceptor Utility Vehicle is All Wheel Drive and powered by a V6, 3.7 Liter engine. It is a Flex Fuel vehicle that can use gasoline or E85 and gets 16 mpg city and 21 mpg highway.
Several Dodge Charger Police Packages were also purchased for testing.
The Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor averaged 14 mpg city and 21 mpg highway. The new Ford Police Interceptor Utility Vehicle costs $26,578, which includes a 5-year, 100,000-mile warranty. The Department was paying $24,043 for the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptors and recently spent hundreds of thousands of dollars per month to maintain all vehicles no longer covered by warranty. Several vehicles were allocated to public affairs officers and are used for recruiting purposes. An example of these vehicles can be seen at the California State Fair and other venues. CHP also uses Chevrolet Silverados, Dodge Rams (for commercial vehicle enforcement), Ford Expeditions, and Dodge Durangos for their divisions that snow frequently or have certain terrains to permit off-road driving.
In July 2016, it was announced that the CHP would be taking delivery of 516 2016 Dodge Chargers. These cars are hoped to be more reliable than the Ford Police Interceptor Utility Vehicle, which have been plagued with various recalls and breakdowns, most notably, transmission failures.
In 2017, it was announced that the CHP were going to start using Chevrolet Tahoe Police Patrol Vehicles (PPV) for rural and resident posts. This is because of their ability to carry a larger "basic load" of normal issue equipment, equipment that may be only in a few cars, and / or not carried by patrol cars at all, in a more urban setting.
The CHP utilizes both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. In 2017 the fleet consisted of:
- 15 Airbus Helicopters (Eurocopter) AS350B3 Squirrels
- 11 Cessna T206H Turbo Stationairs
- 4 Gippsaero GA8 TC-320 Airvans
- 2 Hughes (MD500) 369Ds
- 1 Cessna 182S Skylane
- 1 Raytheon (Beechcraft) B300 Super King Air
A former officer from Barstow, was convicted on May 10, 1984, in federal court, for the on‑duty rape and slaying of 23-year-old Robin Bishop on January 11, 1982. He had reported finding a dead body off a deserted stretch of interstate 15 on that same day he had murdered her with his service weapon. Gwaltney was tried twice for this murder at the San Bernardino County Court House, the first trial ended with the jury deadlocked 8-4 and the second 7-5. The district attorney attempted to try Gwaltney a third time, but a Superior court judge dismissed the murder charge. Since Gwaltney was allowed to walk away as a free man for the first two state trials, the FBI stepped in to take over the case. The FBI was able to piece together the events leading up to the slaying and the on duty rape of the Utah native, Robin Bishop and interrogating Gwaltney's alibi, Preston Olson and his mother. There was more forensic evidence that the FBI succeeded on getting to build their case against Gwaltney and soon his story started to fall apart piece by piece. After the six-month investigation done by the FBI, George Michael Gwaltney was arrested at his desert hometown in Barstow and tried in federal court at the U.S District Court in Los Angeles, where he was represented by a public defender whom he chose not to have Gwaltney testify just as he had done in the previous two state trials. He was found guilty of the slaying, rape and the deprivation of Robin Bishop's civil rights while on duty. He was the first California Highway Patrol officer to be charged with the indictment of violating the civil rights of Robin Bishop as well as being the first CHP officer to commit a murder while on duty. Following the conviction, Gwaltney was subsequently sentenced to 90 years, being eligible for parole after serving at least 30 years. Gwaltney died in federal custody from a heart attack.
A former officer from Poway, is serving a 25-years-to-life prison sentence for the on-duty strangulation and murder of 20-year-old Cara Knott on December 27, 1986. After she was killed, Knott's body was discarded over an abandoned highway bridge. Peyer was convicted of first-degree murder in 1988. Though he has maintained innocence ever since, Peyer has been denied parole consistently. In 2004, the parole board offered Peyer the chance to prove his alleged innocence by providing a DNA sample to compare against a drop of blood found on Cara's shoe, using modern DNA profiling. Peyer declined to provide a sample, nor explain why he declined to do so.
Brad Wheat, an off duty California Highway Patrol Officer got into a dispute outside of a "Get Ripped Nutrition" in Martell, Amador County, California on August 4, 2018. He had a weapon and the store owner was going to call 911 before he shot the owner, his wife, and himself. The owner managed to escape despite his injury and called 911. Brad's wife, and Brad were killed instantly.
ADDED 04/24/2019: MARTELL, Calif. -- Authorities in Northern California say an off-duty highway patrol officer fatally shot his wife before turning the gun on himself. The Amador County Sheriff's Office said Tuesday deputies responded to a 911 call Monday night from a man who said he was locked inside his store along with a woman and that her husband was banging on the door.
The office says that deputies arrived at the store in Martell as shots were being fired. They later found 45-year-old Brad Wheat, a California Highway Patrol officer, and his wife, 42-year-old Mary Wheat, dead in the parking lot.
It says the man who called authorities was shot on the shoulder during a struggle inside the store involving all three. The man was airlifted to a hospital where he is being treated.
CBS Sacramento reports Wheat was trying to get inside Get Ripped Nutrition, and when he couldn't, he shot the window out. Detectives say they're still looking for a motive.
"It appears the initial struggle occurred inside the building and at some point, it left the building," said Amador County Sheriff Martin Ryan.
Ryan says Wheat shot the store owner in the shoulder, then shot his wife, before turning the gun on himself. He adds the couple was very-well known throughout Amador County.
The sheriff says Mary Wheat owned a cross-fit gym and was involved in local churches and high schools.
Brad Wheat also volunteered his time at local high schools and was well-known among the law enforcement community in Amador County.
"They were both very personable, easy to get to know and easy to like. She was very bubbly, I think more outgoing than Brad," the sheriff said.
Gloria Vallejo remembers Mary Wheat as "happy" and "outgoing."
A former officer from Pioneer was arrested for continuously molesting and raping a 12-year-old girl on August 13, 2018. He was charged with oral copulation with a minor under 14, lewd acts with a child under 14, continuous sexual abuse of a child, penetration with a foreign object and rape. The Amador County Sheriff's Department was tipped off by a local Church pastor after the victim and her mother came forward with the alleged abuse. The Amador County Sheriff's detectives and the department learned that the alleged molestation had been taking place for the past year. Joslin was employed with the California Highway Patrol Amador area office until Aug. 14, when he was removed from the position. From July 1, 2009, until March 2, 2016, he was employed at the San Andreas area office. He graduated from the CHP Academy in West Sacramento on June 18, 2007. Joslin appeared in court and pleaded not guilty to the charges he had against him and was ordered to turn in his firearms. A protective order was imposed on Joslin in court, prohibiting him from contacting the victim in any capacity. He is currently being held at the Amador County Jail awaiting his bail and arrangement proceedings scheduled for October 1.
This may need to be updated until further notice.
- CHiPs was a fictional television drama show (1977–1983) about the CHP, and the CHP helped out in the 1955 TV show Highway Patrol starring Broderick Crawford. Also the CHiPs TV series was made into a modern television film called CHiPs '99. A comical motion picture version of the show has been released in 2017 (CHIPS) but it has not been endorsed by the CHP at all.
- Former CHP Commissioner Maury Hannigan was the host of the syndicated TV series Real Stories of the Highway Patrol, which aired in the mid-to-late 1990s. The show featured not just the CHP, but also the Minnesota State Patrol, the Nevada Highway Patrol, the Alaska State Troopers, the South Dakota Highway Patrol, the Rhode Island State Police, the Massachusetts State Police, the West Virginia State Police and many other state police and highway patrol agencies in the United State of America, and in one episode, the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary. The series featured selected stories from state troopers and highway patrol officials from throughout North America who put themselves at great risk to apprehend those who instigated crime on their highways.
- In the science-fiction film Rise of the Planet of the Apes where they are assigned to shoot down several apes led by Caesar who have escaped from cages. The rebellious apes win the battle using a strategem that overwhelms the CHP and escape into the Muir Woods Forest.
- The TV movie Smash Up on I5 is about the San Juan Capistrano Area Office of the CHP in 1976
- The CHP have a small role in Sky Heist, in Terminator: Genisys and in Buddy Buddy (Walter Matthau & Jack Lemmon, 1981)
- In the Cory Doctorow novel Little Brother the CHP liberates the Department of Homeland Security's "Gitmo-by-the-Bay" detention facility.
- We can see CHP officers in the movie Drive a Crooked Road (Richard Quine & Jack Corrick, 1954).
- It is parodied in Grand Theft Auto V as the San Andreas Highway Patrol (SAHP); additionally, players can acquire their uniform after completing the main story.
- Comedian Gabriel Iglesias is notorious for his comical altercations with the CHP. These include offering an officer donuts and pretending to get arrested to frighten his son.
- In the film Need for Speed, the CHP is shown in pursuit of racers in the De Leon race.
- A CHP officer and car can be seen in the 1960 film Psycho, directed by Alfred Hitchock.
- CHP is also seen in Gone in 60 Seconds (2000).
- CHP is also seen in True Detective where one of the main characters in the second season is an officer.
- In the NCIS: Los Angeles episode "Empty Quiver", two of the main characters go undercover as CHP motor officers to infiltrate a corrupt ring of CHP officers known as "The Golden Taxi Service". In the same episode, another one of the main characters makes references to seeing the television show CHiPs and made him want to become a police officer.
- In the A-Team, S1E10, the team use a false CHP car to stop a truck.
The CHP hosts or partners with numerous programs for public safety education and community involvement.
- Start Smart- a class for prospective and new teen drivers
- Every 15 Minutes- a two-day anti-drunk driving presentation for high school students
- Impact Teen Drivers- a nonprofit against teen distracted driving that is partnered with the CHP
- Make the Right Turn- aimed at educating 11- to 14-year-olds about drugs and peer pressure
- CHP Explorer Program- A law enforcement career exploration program for teenagers ages 15–21 years old who are interested in becoming a CHP Officer.
- Sober Graduation- promoting sober driving and the use of a designated driver for teens
- Red Ribbon Week- a week in October dedicated to education about the dangers of illicit drugs for students of all ages
Vehicle Theft Recognition and Awards Program
- 10851 Award for Superior Efforts in Vehicle Theft Arrests and Recovery. The CHP developed the 10851 Awards Program to recognize the superior efforts made by CHP and allied law enforcement personnel who have met specified criteria toward the reduction of stolen vehicle crimes. This includes actual arrests made of suspects charged with California Vehicle Code Section 10851 – Vehicle Theft. The CHP, in conjunction with the California State Automobile Association, presented an estimated 2,009 awards in 1995 to the more than 170 allied agencies participating in the 10851 Awards Program.
- Highway Safety Corridor Program- promoting caution on roads with high accident rates
- Senior Volunteer Program- Citizens ages 55 and older can volunteer their time to help the CHP out in their community.
- Designated Driver Program- program to reduce drunk driving incidents through using a designated driver
Origins of the California Highway Patrol's name
When the CHP was formed, there were discussions as to what to call this new agency. The consensus was for the name "California Highway Patrol". The American Automobile Association (AAA) is a private organization which provided, among other things, roadside assistance to their members. At that time, the AAA had a fleet of trucks which patrolled the roads so they could assist their members. These trucks carried a sign which said "Highway Patrol". The CHP organizers decided it would be best to contact the AAA to see if they would object to the state using this name. The AAA considered the idea, and gave their consent.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to California Highway Patrol.|
- "California: Population estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. December 21, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- History of CHP; the CHP-CSP Merger Archived 2010-05-28 at the Wayback Machine
- "California Penal Code § 830.2(a)". California Office of Legislative Counsel. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
- Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Teams (MAIT) website
- News Release 05-42, Media Relations Office, California Highway Patrol, 29 September 2005
- Richards, Kathleen. "Are CHP Patrols in Oakland Worth It?". East Bay Express. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- "Oakland Approves Extra Patrols From CHP " CBS San Francisco". Sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- Berton, Justin (March 11, 2013). "Oakland's use of CHP help draws critics". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Ortiz, Jon (9 February 2015). "CHP officers' pay up 11 percent; number of officers declines". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Vekshin, Alison; Young, Elise; Yap, Rodney (16 December 2012). "Highest-Paid California Trooper is Chief Banking $484,000". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Dolan, Jack (18 September 2016). "The Pension Gap". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- "Embattled CHP Patrol Commissioner Brown Steps Down". www.ktvu.com. 2008-02-13. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-08-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
-  Archived April 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "Chapter 2 – Chaplaincy Responses". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- The Officer Down Memorial Page
- CHP-Mexico Liaison Archived July 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- https://web.archive.org/web/20080407001341/http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-chp5apr05%2C0%2C2233857.story. Archived from the original on April 7, 2008. Missing or empty
- Anderson, John; Marsh Cassady (1998). The Newhall Incident: America's Worst Uniformed Cop Massacre. Quill Driver Books. ISBN 978-1-884956-01-0.
- "CHP: The Newhall Incident". Archived from the original on 2008-10-26. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- "CHP: The Newhall Incident". Archived from the original on 2008-10-26. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- California Fish and Game Commission Meeting March 6 2008[permanent dead link]
- A how-to guide in revamping woeful CDFW Tom Stienstra San Francisco Chronicle December 8 2002
- A world without game wardens? ESPN March 6 2008
- Game-warden shortage is about to get worse San Francisco Chronicle September 23 2007 Archived February 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Lots of ocean, but few game wardens! Sacramento Bee August 23 2007 Archived August 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Oregon State Police Fish and Wildlife Division Archived 2012-07-31 at the Wayback Machine
- Division of Alaska Wildlife Troopers
- Mattos, Rick (2008). California Highway Patrol. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub. ISBN 9780738556208. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Carpenter, Susan (25 June 2013). "BMW's R1200RT-P: Big, bad and packing heat". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- Satrom, Scott (April 5, 2016). "chips-tv.com". chips-tv.com.
- "CHP Adds Dodge Chargers for Highway Enforcement". 6 May 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- "FAA Registry". Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "790 F.2d 1378: United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. George Michael Gwaltney, Defendant-appellant :: US Court of Appeals Cases :: Justia". Cases.justia.com. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- [dead link]
- CHP Terms Explained
- Crane, Bob, California Association of Highway Patrolmen Golden Chronicle 1920–1970, (Sacramento, California: California Association of Highway Patrolmen, 1970).