Cameron Prize of the University of Edinburgh

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The Cameron Prize of the University of Edinburgh is awarded to a person who has made any highly important and valuable addition to Practical Therapeutics[clarification needed] in the previous five years. The prize, which may be awarded biennially, was founded in 1878 by the late Dr Andrew Robertson Cameron of Richmond, New South Wales, with a sum of £2,000. The University's senatus academicus may require the prizewinner to deliver one or more lectures or to publish an account on the addition made to Practical Therapeutics.[1] A list of recipients of the prize dates back to 1879.

Cameron Prize Winners[edit]

Date Winner Institution Interest
1879 Paul Bert Faculty of Sciences, Paris The Sorbonne Decompression sickness, toxicity of high concentrations of oxygen
1880 William Roberts Owens College, Manchester Discovered the antibacterial effects of penicillium moulds, coined the word "enzyme"
1889 Louis Pasteur Pasteur Institute Principles of vaccination, first vaccines for rabies and anthrax, microbial fermentation, pasteurization first resolution of optical isomers
1890 Joseph Lister King's College Hospital, London Pioneer of antiseptic surgery
1891 David Ferrier King's College Hospital, London Cortical localisation[2]
1893 Victor Alexander Haden Horsley National Hospital for Paralysis and Epilepsy Developed the Horsley–Clarke apparatus, stereotactic neurosurgery, epilepsy,
1894 Emil Adolf von Behring Marburg University, Marburg, Germany Serum for diphtheria
1896 William Macewen University of Glasgow Aseptic procedures in the operating theatre, a pioneer of brain surgery and for the development of a number of successful operating techniques and procedures in bone surgery
1897 Thomas R Fraser Department of Materia Medica Edinburgh Introduced strophanthus and physostigmine
1898 Sydney Arthur Monckton Copeman Ministry of Health. UK Authority on vaccination
1899 Sir David Bruce Army Medical School at Netley, UK Investigated brucellosis and trypanosomes, identifying the cause of sleeping sickness
1900 Waldemar Mordechai Wolff Haffkine Pasteur Institute in Paris Vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague
1901 Patrick Manson The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Discoveries in parasitology and a founder of the field of tropical medicine
1902 Ronald Ross University College, Liverpool, United Kingdom Malaria, by which he showed how it enters the organism. Won Nobel Prize in 1902
1904 Niels Ryberg Finsen Copenhagen University Hospital Treatment of lupus vulgaris with concentrated light radiation. Won Nobel Prize in 1903
1910 August Karl Gustav Bier Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin Spinal anesthesia using cocaine and intravenous regional anesthesia
1911 Simon Flexner Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research Studies into poliomyelitis and the development of serum treatment for meningitis
1914 Paul Ehrlich Frankfurt University, Germany Hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy, discovered arsphenamine (Salvarsan), the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis, concept of a silver bullet. Nobel Prize in 1908
1915 Thomas Lauder Brunton St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London Use of amyl nitrite to treat angina pectoris, dissertation on digitalis
1920 Robert Jones Military orthopaedic hospital at Liverpool Radiography in orthopaedics, described the Jones fracture.
1921 Jules Bordet Université Libre de Bruxelles Development of serological tests for syphilis, isolated Bordetella pertussis in pure culture in 1906 and posited it as the cause of whooping cough. Nobel Prize 1921.
1922 F G Hopkins University of Cambridge Discovery of growth-stimulating vitamins, the amino acid tryptophan and the discovery and characterization of glutathione. Nobel Prize 1929.
1923 J J R Macleod University of Toronto Isolation of insulin, Nobel Prize 1923
1924 Harvey Cushing Harvard Medical School Cushing's disease
1925 Rudolf Magnus University Medical Center Utrecht Diuretic effect of the excretions of the pituitary gland, the reflexes involved in mammal posture, studied the effects of narcotics and poison gasses on the lungs
1926 Henry Hallett Dale National Institute for Medical Research Study of acetylcholine as agent in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses. Nobel Prize 1936
1927 Frederick Banting University of Toronto Treated dogs so that they no longer produced trypsin, insulin could then be extracted and used to treat diabetes. Nobel Prize 1923
1928 Constantin Levaditi Romanian University of Medicine and Pharmacy Discovered in the presence of the polio virus in tissues other than nervous and this was the basis for the development of vaccine (by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin)
1929 Leonard Rogers Hospital for Tropical Diseases Effects of hæmostatic and other drugs on the intravascular coagulability of the blood and treatment of cholera with hypertonic saline, worked on Entamoeba histolytica, which he correctly associated with both dysentery and hepatic abscess
1930 George R Minot Harvard University Discovered an effective treatment for pernicious anemia. Nobel Prize 1934
William P. Murphy Brigham Hospital, Boston Shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934 with George Richards Minot and George Hoyt Whipple combined work in devising and treating macrocytic anemia (specifically, pernicious anemia). liver had been tried on people with pernicious anemia and later were able to isolate vitamin B12
1931 Marie Curie École Normale Supérieure First woman to win a Nobel Prize with her husband, coined the word "radioactivity," and isolated radium chloride and pure radium. Nobel Prizes 1903 and 1911
1932 Edward Mellanby Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Sheffield, Fullerian Professor of Physiology University of Cambridge Cause of rickets is lack of vitamin, secretary of the Medical Research Council from 1933 to 1949
1933 Gladys Rowena Henry Dick University of Chicago, Evanston Hospital, John R. McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases, St. Luke's Hospital Isolated hemolytic streptococcus, co-developed a vaccine for scarlet fever, and introduced the Dick Test
George Frederick Dick University of Chicago, Evanston Hospital, John R. McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases, St. Luke's Hospital Isolated hemolytic streptococcus, co-developed a vaccine for scarlet fever, and introduced the Dick Test
1935 Edward Albert Sharpey Schafer University of Edinburgh Founder of endocrinology, coined the word "insulin" after theorising that a single substance from the pancreas was responsible for diabetes mellitus. Schafer's method of artificial respiration, introduced the use of suprarenal extract (containing adrenaline as well as other active substances)
1936 Julius Wagner-Jauregg Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases in Vienna Introduced malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica (neurosyphilis) and research on goiter, cretinism, and iodine. Nobel Prize 1927
1937 Carl Hamilton Browning University of Glasgow Worked in Germany with Paul Ehrlich, discovered the therapeutic qualities of acridine dyes
1938 James B Collip McGill University in Montreal Working with the Toronto group that isolated insulin he prepared a pancreatic extract pure enough to be used in clinical trials, pioneering work with parathyroid hormone. Nobel Prize 1923
1938 Karl Landsteiner University of Vienna

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research

Discovered three human blood groups (O, A, and B), the Rhesus factor, and isolated the polio virus. Nobel Prize 1930
1939 Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk Bayer laboratories at Wuppertal Discoverer of sulfonamidochrysoidine (Prontosil) effective against streptococci, eventually led to the development of the antituberculosis drugs thiosemicarbazone and isoniazid. Nobel Prize 1939, lectured in 1954 (forced until then to decline Nobel Prize)
1940 Charles Dodds Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry Pentose phosphate pathway which generates NADPH, the discovery of stilboestrol, a synthetic and powerfully active non-steroid analogue of the naturally occurring oestrogenic hormone
1944 Otto Loewi New York University College of Medicine Showed Acetylcholine to be released by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve and augmentation of adrenaline release by cocaine, a connection between digitalis and the action of calcium. Invented the mydriatic test in which an experimental form of diabetes in dogs led a change in the response of the eye to adrenaline. Nobel Prize 1936
1945 Alexander Fleming St Mary's Hospital, London Discovered the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928. Nobel Prize 1945 with Florey
1945 Howard Florey University of Oxford Carried out the first clinical trials of penicillin in 1941. Nobel Prize 1945 shared with Fleming
1946 Albert Szent-Györgyi National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Discovering vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle, identifying fumaric acid and other steps in what became known as the Krebs cycle. Nobel Prize 1937
1947 Neil Hamilton Fairley London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Saved thousands of Allied lives from malaria and other diseases during WW II, researched quinine, sulphonamides, atebrin, plasmoquine, and paludrine
1948 Edwin B. Astwood New England Medical Center, Boston Hormonal control of the mammary gland, the initial rise in uterine weight in response to estrogen could be suppressed by progesterone and the basic mechanisms of thyroid physiology and assessment of relative potency of antithyroid drugs in man, established rational therapeutic regimens for most thyroid diseases, identification of a third pituitary gonadotropin, which he named luteotrophin
1949 Daniel Bovet University of Rome La Sapienza. Antihistamines discovered succinylcholine to be a depolarizing muscle relaxant. He also synthesized gallamine, the first completely artificial curariform drug to be clinically useful, work on synthetic analogs of bioactive amines and antihistamines. Nobel Prize 1957
1950 Rudolph Albert Peters Institute of Animal Physiology, Babraham British Anti-Lewisite (BAL) and treatment of post-arsphenamine jaundice researched pyruvate metabolism, focussing particularly on the toxicity of fluoroacetate
1951 Tadeus Reichstein Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Basel Synthesized vitamin C (ascorbic acid) by what is now called the Reichstein process, isolated aldosterone, a hormone of the adrenal cortex. Nobel Prize 1950 Jointly with Kendall
E C Kendall Princeton University Isolation of thyroxine, the active principle of the thyroid gland, the crystallization of glutathione, the hormones of the cortex of the adrenal glands and the anti-inflammatory effect of cortisone. Nobel Prize 1950 (shared)
1954 Russell Claude Brock Guy's and the Brompton hospitals Cardiac surgeon, operated 0n Fallot’s Tetralogy patients with pulmonary stenosis and mitral stenosis resulting from rheumatic fever, introduced new developments, notably hypothermia and the heart-lung machine
1956 William D.M. Paton University of Oxford Interest in hyperbaric physiology, cholinergic transmission in particular decamethonium and hexamethonium, histamine release by licheniform and other basic substances, mechanism of action of gaseous anaesthetic agents, pharmacology of cannabis, the rate theory of drug action
Eleanor J Zaimis The Royal Free Hospital, London muscle relaxants and ganglionic blockers, the structure-activity relationships of methonium compounds
1958 Charles B Huggins University of Chicago Discovered in 1941 that hormones could be used to control the spread of some cancers, specializing in prostate cancer, castration or estrogen administration led to glandular atrophy, androgen ablation of metastases, development of biomarker based on serum phosphatase. Nobel Prize 1966
1960 John F Enders Children's Hospital Boston In vitro culture of poliovirus, isolated measles virus and began development of measles vaccine and conducted trials on 1,500 mentally retarded children in New York City and 4,000 children in Nigeria. Nobel Prize 1954
1962 Alan S Parkes University College, London Reproductive biology, research in low-temperature biology leading to the discovery that glycerol protected spermatozoa against damage during freezing and storage at very low temperatures
1964 Willem J Kolff University of Utah Pioneer of hemodialysis for kidney failure and the development of artificial organs, in particular the artificial heart
1966 Gregory Pincus Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts Confirmed earlier research that progesterone would act as an inhibitor to ovulation, co-inventor the combined oral contraceptive pill, in vitro fertilization in rabbits
1968 Robert Gwyn Macfarlane Oxford University Deciphered the enzymic cascade of blood coagulation and the treatment of haemophilia, studied the venom of many different snakes and isolated the poison of the Russell's Viper
1970 Georges Mathé Hôpital Paul-Brousse Performed the first bone marrow graft and first successful kidney grafts between unrelated donors, the development of several important immunosuppressant molecules such as acriflavine, bestatine, ellipticine, oxaliplatin, triptoreline and vinorelbine
1972 George H Hitchings Wellcome Research Laboratories, Tuckahoe, New York Work included 2,6-diaminopurine (a compound to treat leukemia) and p-chlorophenoxy-2,4-diaminopyrimidine (a folic acid antagonist), new drug therapies for malaria (pyrimethamine), leukemia (6-mercaptopurine and thioguanine), gout (allopurinol), organ transplantation (azathioprine) and bacterial infections (co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim) pointed the way that led to major antiviral drugs for herpes infections (acyclovir) and AIDS (zidovudine). Nobel Prize 1988 shared with Black
1974 John Charnley Wrightington Hospital, Lancashire British orthopaedic surgeon pioneered hip replacement, development of the low friction arthroplasty concept, use of bone cement that acted as a grout rather than glue
1976 Norman E Shumway Stanford University Human heart transplant operation, pioneered the use of cyclosporine to prevent rejection
1978 Sune K Bergstrom Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Succeeded in producing pure prostaglandins and determining the chemical structures of two important examples, PGE and PGF, showed that these are formed through the conversion of unsaturated fatty acids, used to trigger contractions during childbirth, induce abortions, or reduce the risk of gastric ulcer. Nobel Prize 1982 Shared with John Vane
1980 James Black King's College Hospital Medical School, London Developed propranolol, a beta-blocker that has a calming effect on the heart by blocking the receptor for adrenaline,[3] developed cimetidine that suppresses the formation of gastric acid and is used to fight ulcers. Nobel Prize 1988 shared with Hitchings
1988 Hans W Kosterlitz University of Aberdeen Endorphins, used electrically stimulated strip of guinea pig intestine to assess opiate activity in pig brain homogenates.[4]
1990 Roy Yorke Calne University of Cambridge organ transplantation pioneer, improvement of immunosuppression techniques
1993 Virgil Craig Jordan Georgetown University Discovered the breast cancer prevention properties of tamoxifen, the prevention of multiple diseases in women using his new discovery, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) raloxifene trial
1996 Pat P A Humphrey Glaxo Pharmacological profile of selective 5-HT 4 receptor agonists, TD-5108, tegaserod, adenosine A1 receptor agonists.migraine,[5] 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, triptans as the most important breakthrough in headache medicine – sumatriptan, naratriptan, alosetron, ondansetron, vapiprost and salmeterol
2004 Ravinder Nath Maini Imperial College School of Medicine Identified TNF alpha as a key cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis and discoverer of anti-TNF therapy as an effective treatment
Marc Feldmann Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford Discoverer of anti-TNF therapy as an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, infliximab and etanercept, treatments for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis
2007 Garret A. FitzGerald University of Pennsylvania Prostanoid research, pharmacological inhibition of COXs versus the microsomal PGE synthase– 1,[6] involved in the interdisciplinary PENTACON consortium, integration of basic and clinical research in yeast, mammalian cells, fish, mice and humans with the objective of predicting NSAID efficacy and cardiovascular hazard in patients
2017 Sally Davies Chief Medical Officer for England Disorders of the blood and bone, sickle cell disease.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Cameron Prize Lectures". Lancet. 206 (5332, ): 979. 1925.
  2. ^ Sandrone, S (2014). "David Ferrier (1843-1928)". J Neurol. 261: 1247–1248. doi:10.1007/s00415-013-7023-y.
  3. ^ Hothersall, J (2011). "The design, synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists". Br J Pharmacol. 164: 317–31. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01269.x. PMC 3174413.
  4. ^ Hughes, J (1975). "Identification of two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity". Nature. 258: 577–580.
  5. ^ Humphrey, P (2007). "The discovery of a new drug class for the acute treatment of migraine". Headache. 47 Suppl 1: S10–19.
  6. ^ FitzGerald, Garret (2001). "COX-2 inhibitors and the cardiovascular system". Clin Exp Rheumatol. 19: S31–6.