Cannabis in Afghanistan
Cannabis in Afghanistan has been cultivated for centuries, and experienced relatively little interference until the 1970s, whereafter it became an issue both in international politics and in the finance of the series of wars which occurred in Afghanistan for forty years.
The cannabis indica plant is native to Afghanistan so most cannabis that is around today actually originates from Afghanistan. With the cannabis sativa plant also originating in Central Asia, it is not unlikely for all existing cannabis strains to have originated from Afghanistan.
While traditional cultivation and largely local consumption of cannabis was common in Afghanistan, the development of the Hippie Trail in the 1970s brought an influx of young tourists with an appetite for cannabis to Afghanistan. Hashish had been made nominally illegal in 1957, allegedly mostly as a concession to US pressure, but persisted as a common drug in the country. However, increased production and sale to Western tourists raised the issue to the level of a social problem for the Afghan government. In 1972 Afghan authorities confiscated large amounts of refined heroin and hashish intended for export, revealing the increasingly international scope of drug production in the country. US pressure on Kabul hashish syndicates in 1971 further increased the tension around the issue.
During this 1970s, several Afghan citizens were also linked to The Brotherhood of Eternal Love commune in the United States. Kabul merchant Hyatullah Tohki transported hashish with his brother Amanullah, who worked at the American embassy.[which?]
In 1973, King Zahir Shah outlawed opium poppy and cannabis production, this time followed by genuine commitment to eradication, backed by $47 million in funding from the United States government. That summer Afghan troops aggressively tackled production, destroying farms and arresting or killing cannabis farmers. Zahir Shah was deposed by his cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan that fall, who ended the monarchy and established himself as President, but the momentum of the hashish trade had been interrupted, and Western smugglers re-routed to Pakistani sources, so the 1973 harvest was minimal, as were harvests for several years following. In 1978, Daoud Khan was deposed by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan in the Saur Revolution
- Nick Jones (30 July 2013). Spliffs. Pavilion Books. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-1-909396-32-6.
- Robert P. Stephens (2007). Germans on Drugs: The Complications of Modernization in Hamburg. University of Michigan Press. pp. 102–. ISBN 0-472-06973-X.
- Gilles Dorronsoro (2005). Revolution Unending: Afghanistan, 1979 to the Present. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-1-85065-683-8.
- Shahzad Bashir; Robert D. Crews (28 May 2012). Under the Drones: Modern Lives in the Afghanistan-Pakistan Borderlands. Harvard University Press. pp. 238–. ISBN 978-0-674-06476-8.
- Robert Greenfield (17 June 2009). A Day in the Life: One Family, the Beautiful People, and the End of the Sixties. Da Capo Press. pp. 100–. ISBN 0-7867-4800-1.
- Martin Booth (30 September 2011). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-1-4090-8489-1.
- Struan Stevenson (6 September 2012). Stalin's Legacy: The Soviet War on Nature. Birlinn, Limited. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-0-85790-236-8.
- "Afghanistan Cannabis survey 2010" (PDF). UN Office on Drugs and Crime. July 2011.