Carla Anderson Hills
Carla Anderson Hills
|Chair of the Council on Foreign Relations|
|Assumed office |
June 30, 2007
|President||Richard N. Haass|
|Preceded by||Peter Peterson|
|10th United States Trade Representative|
February 6, 1989 – January 20, 1993
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Clayton Yeutter|
|Succeeded by||Mickey Kantor|
|5th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development|
March 10, 1975 – January 20, 1977
|Preceded by||James Thomas Lynn|
|Succeeded by||Patricia Roberts Harris|
|20th United States Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division|
|Preceded by||Harlington Wood Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Rex Lee|
January 3, 1934
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Education||Stanford University (BA)|
St Hilda's College, Oxford
Yale University (LLB)
Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and a public figure. She served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the Gerald Ford administration, and as U.S. Trade Representative. She was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the third woman to serve as a cabinet officer.
Early life and education
Born Carla Anderson in Los Angeles, she received her B.A. degree from Stanford University, after studying at St Hilda's College, Oxford. She earned her LL.B. degree from Yale Law School in 1958 and married Roderick M. Hills the same year.
Hills was admitted to the California bar in 1959, and served as an Assistant United States Attorney in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1961. From 1962 to 1974, she was a partner at Munger, Tolles, Hills, and Rickershauser in Los Angeles. In 1972, she was an adjunct professor at UCLA. An authority on federal practice and anti-trust law, Mrs. Hills wrote of Federal Civil Practice and Antitrust Advisor. She is a former president of the National Association of Women Lawyers.
She was a United States Assistant Attorney General heading the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice before being named as the secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Elliot L. Richardson sought to appoint her as assistant U.S. Attorney General in 1973, but he resigned shortly thereafter during the Watergate scandal. The offer was renewed by his successor, William B. Saxbe, in 1974.
Hills' lack of relevant experience was somewhat controversial during the hearings for her nomination to head the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Hills hit back against her critics, criticizing Senator William Proxmire’s “total ignorance” of HUD’s programs in 1977). While there, she approved ithe demolition of the massive public housing project in Northwest St. Louis, Pruitt-Igoe, a decayed and crime-ridden project generally acknowledged to have been a planning disaster, housing only six hundred people in seventeen buildings with the other sixteen buildings vacant and boarded up when it was finally demolished.. As Oscar Newman argued in his groundbreaking work on “defensible space,” high-rise projects like Pruitt-Igoe promoted crime by isolating tenants in individual units unconnected to specific public areas. Following Newman’s arguments for scattered site rental housing, Hills promoted the “section 8” subsidy program under the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, under which the federal government would subsidize individual households’ rent rather than finance the construction of large-scale housing projects. President Ford later commented in his autobiography, A Time to Heal, that Hills was an exceptionally effective advocate for HUD, often appealing the budgetary decisions of James Lynn, Ford’s OMB chief, to the President and winning most of the time. Hills’ reputation on Ford’s cabinet was high enough that she was one of the candidates on his “short list” to replace U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas. (Ultimately, Ford selected John Paul Stevens). From 1978 through 1989, she was again a practicing attorney, and she served as chairwoman of the Urban Institute from 1983 through 1988.
U.S. Trade Representative
Hills served as U.S. Trade Representative under President George H. W. Bush from 1989 to 1993. She was under pressure to implement the 1988 Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act to go after countries that were considered to be trading unfairly with the U.S. The New York Times called Section 301 of the Act her "crowbar", which enabled the U.S. to impose tariffs as high as 100%. She initially went after Japan, Brazil and India, although the Bush administration later decided Japan had changed its ways.
An advocate of free trade, she was the primary U.S. negotiator of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In 2000, Hills was awarded the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle (La Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca), which is the highest honor awarded to non-citizens by the Mexican government. In fact, it was the first time Mexican-Americans were awarded this award since November 12, 1990 when the union leader, Cesar Chavez, received it.
President George H.W. Bush's administration's priority was to hammer out the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in the Uruguay Round, where Hills was known as a strong negotiator. "Delegations from 97 countries [sought] ways to notch down everyone's tariffs and remove other obstacles to trade." "The 97 signatories to GATT account for two-thirds of the $3 trillion in merchandise traded each year. Since the original agreement in 1947, GATT has been altered six times..." but, "after the last GATT revision – the Tokyo Round, which started in 1976 – many American industries were outclassed by others".
Since 1993, she has worked as a consultant and a public speaker through Hills & Company International Consultants, which advises on investment, trade and risks abroad. She was one of the founders of the Forum for International Policy where she is a trustee. Carla stepped down from Time Warner, Inc. with Ted Turner in 2006. She now serves on international advisory boards for American International Group, The Coca-Cola Company, Gilead Sciences, Inc., J.P. Morgan Chase and Rolls Royce as well as the board of the U.S.-China Business Council.
North American community
In 2005, Hills participated in the Task Force on the Future of North America. The Task Force produced a controversial report called Building a North American Community sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. The reported advocated strengthening trading relationships between the U.S., Canada and Mexico by making trade more efficient, building infrastructure in North America, fast tracking borders and integrating language. For example, it recommended assisting "elementary and secondary schools in teaching about North America." (page 29) "Develop teacher exchange and training programs for elementary and secondary school teachers. This would assist in removing language barriers and give some students a greater sense of a North American identity. Greater efforts should also be made to recruit Mexican language teachers to teach Spanish in the United States and Canada."
- Co-chair, Council on Foreign Relations
- Chair, National Committee on United States-China Relations
- Executive committee member, Trilateral Commission
- Executive committee member, Institute for International Economics (IIE), now the Peterson Institute
- Director, ChevronTexaco, since 1993.
- Director, American International Group
- Director, Lucent Technologies
- Director, AOL Time Warner
- Director, Results for Development Institute
- Co-Chair, Inter-American Dialogue
- Trustee, Forum for International Policy
- U.S. board member, International Crisis Group.
- Advisory board member, Partnership for a Secure America
- Counselor and trustee, Center for Strategic and International Studies
- Advisory board member, National Bureau of Asian Research
Awards and honors
- Louis Uchitelle (June 10, 1990). "A Crowbar for Carla Hills". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- "Carla Anderson Hills". Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- "International Crisis Group – Carla A. Hills". Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Hills, Carla A. (1978). Antitrust Advisor: 1984 Cumulative Supplement. Colorado Springs: Shepard's, Inc. ISBN 978-0-07-056701-6.
- "Hills Program on Governance, Roderick M. & Carla A. Hills". Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Hamm, Patricia H. (July 1, 1996). "Chicanos, NAFTA and U.S.-Mexico Relations: A 1988-1993 Chronology" (PDF). Center for Research on Latinos in a Global Society (University of California, Irvine): 8. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- "The Forum for International Policy, trustees". Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- "Ted Turner and Carla A. Hills to Step Down from Time Warner's Board of Directors". February 24, 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- "Carla A. Hills Profile – Forbes.com". Archived from the original on 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Yale University gives ex-Beatle honorary doctorate in music[permanent dead link] RepublicanAmerican, 2008-05-26, retrieved 2008-05-26
- Pastor, Robert A.; Hills, Carla A.; Jones, James R.; Manley, John P.; Niles, Thomas M.T.; Cunningham, Nelson W.; Weld, William F.; Yzaguirre, Raul H. (May 2005). Building a North American Community (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-87609-348-9. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Board of Directors, Council on Foreign Relations, retrieved 2008-05-26
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-27. Retrieved 2008-07-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), National Committee on United States-China Relations, retrieved 2008-07-04
- Inter-American Dialogue BoD, dead as of 2008-05-26 Archived May 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine retrieved 2008-05-26
- Wulf, Steve (2015-03-23). "Supersisters: Original Roster". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
| United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
| United States Trade Representative