Censorship by Apple

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Censorship by Apple refers to Apple Inc.'s removal, omission, or disruption of the spread of content or information from its services or subsidiaries, such as the iTunes Store and the App Store (iOS), in order to comply with Apple's company policies, legal demands, or various government censorship laws.

iTunes Books[edit]

The iBooks description for Moby-Dick censored sperm whale as of April 2010.[1]

According to The Daily Telegraph, four erotic books, including Blonde and Wet, the Complete Story, were allegedly removed from the top 10 chart on July 26, 2010.[2]

Northwest Press has had repeated conflicts with Apple's content limitations on sales through the iBooks store. In 2011, an adaptation by Tom Bouden of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest was only approved after the addition of black bars to cover partial male nudity.[3] The technology company initially permitted the individual issues of Jon Macy's Fearful Hunter, but rejected the collected edition, then removed the issues.[4][5] The satirical Al-Qaeda's Super Secret Weapon was rejected outright.[4] In 2016, Northwest published a self-censored version of Hard to Swallow by Justin Hall and Dave Davenport – covering the "objectionable" parts with images of apples – when the original version was rejected due to sexual content.[6]

iTunes Music[edit]

Song censorship[edit]

There is a policy of censoring profanity in song titles on iTunes.[7] This has resulted in a Scunthorpe glitch, by which inoffensive titles are censored due to a coincidental string of letters.[8]

If the song has an explicit label, it will be marked "explicit" next to the song title. If a song is marked "explicit" it is unavailable for purchase if "restrict explicit content" is checked under the parental controls preference. Often there will be a "clean" mark next to the title of some songs, meaning the lyrics have been censored, and is available to purchase on all accounts. Generally, if a song is marked "clean" there is an explicit version available as well.

iTunes Podcasts[edit]

InfoWars[edit]

On August 6th, 2018, Apple removed all but one of the podcasts created by InfoWars, a website owned by Alex Jones, a right-wing American conspiracy theorist radio-show host and content creator. Apple cited hate speech as the reason for the removal of the content.[9][10] Apple's decision to remove this content sparked other major technology companies, including Facebook, Youtube, Spotify, and Google, into removing InfoWars content.[9]

App Store[edit]

Newspaper and magazine content[edit]

In May 2009, Apple rejected the first version of "Newspapers", an iPhone app that let users read content from 50+ newspapers around the world, including the New York Times, France's Le Monde, and the United Kingdom tabloid The Sun. The app was rejected because the topless "Page 3" girls daily features were described as "obscene". A second version of the application was submitted, removing access to The Sun, and adding a price tag of £0.59. The app was made available in the summer, after the release of the iPhone 3.0 software.[11][12] Another application, of similar nature to 'Newspapers', called 'Eucalyptus' allowed users to download e-books to their iPhone, though was rejected by Apple because one of the e-books that could have been downloaded was the Kama Sutra. The ban has since been lifted.[13]

We do believe we have a moral responsibility to keep porn off the iPhone ... Folks who want porn can buy an Android phone

We can't adapt European magazines to the standards of Utah.

— Mathias Müller von Blumencron (editor of Der Spiegel, warning that the news magazine would not alter its content for the App Store)[15]

The App Store has Playboy and Sports Illustrated adult-rated apps that have yet to be removed, while some apps by others were removed citing adult content which has resulted in accusations of hypocrisy. Despite this, adult sites continue to market for iPhone and iPad users.[16][17][18][19] In November 2009, the application of Stern (a mainstream German weekly magazine with a print circulation of about 900,000) was deleted for several weeks without warning.[15][20] In January 2010, Europe's largest newspaper, German tabloid Bild, removed content from the iPhone version of its print edition at the request of Apple, and later it had to modify one of its applications - like in the Stern case because of nudity.[21] The Association of German Magazine Publishers (VDZ) warned that with such interventions Apple might be moving towards censorship.[21]

November 26, 2010, an informational magazine about Google's OS from the Danish publisher Mediaprovider wasn't allowed in the app store.[22]

The Guardian described rejection of explicit content by Apple as analogous to that of the distributor WH Smith, a main distributor which for many years imposed content restrictions on British publishers. Workers at the fashion magazine Dazed & Confused have nicknamed their iPad edition the "Iran edition".[14]

Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoons[edit]

In December 2009, Apple banned a cartoon app called NewsToons by cartoonist Mark Fiore, on the grounds that it "ridiculed public figures."[23][24] In April 2010, Fiore won the Pulitzer Prize for his political satire cartoons, making history as the very first internet-only cartoonist to win the prestigious journalistic prize.[23][24][25] Following public outcry after the story broke in the wake of the award, Apple asked Fiore to resubmit his app, and it was subsequently accepted. Fiore said, "Sure, mine might get approved, but what about someone who hasn't won a Pulitzer and who is maybe making a better political app than mine? Do you need some media frenzy to get an app approved that has political material?"[24]

Baby Shaker[edit]

In April 2009, a game called Baby Shaker was approved for the App Store then later removed due to complaints. The game allowed the user to shake their phone until an image of a cartoon baby on the screen died.[26]

Nine Inch Nails[edit]

In May 2009, Trent Reznor of the rock band Nine Inch Nails announced, via his Twitter account, that Apple had rejected an update to the Nine Inch Nails application due to "objectionable content".[27] The developer posted a message on the Nine Inch Nails discussion boards explaining the situation further:

v1.0 is live. v1.0.3 got rejected due to content yet the app has no content in it. this was mainly a stability release to fix the bug that crashes the app for international users. the bug was fixed 24 hours after 1.0 went live and we have been waiting for apple to approve it ever since. meanwhile the app continues to get a growing number of 1 star ratings from international users understandably frustrated by the bug. but looks like our hands are tied.[28]

Apple later permitted the update.[29]

iPhone eBook[edit]

In December 2009, Ted Lando's eBook app "Take Control of iPhone OS 3" was rejected by Apple. The app was not permitted back into the app store until all references to jailbreaking were removed.[30]

Phone Story[edit]

In 2011, Apple banned a game called Phone Story that explored the ethical challenges of smartphone manufacturing, including conflict minerals, environmental waste, and troubled labor practices.[31] The game was eventually published on the web by its creator Molleindustria.

Drone Strike Alert[edit]

In August 2012, Josh Begley created an iPhone app that sent out a push notification whenever a U.S. military UAV struck a target. The app was rejected because of Apple finding the content "objectionable and crude."[32]

Utilities[edit]

On March 11, 2013, HiddenApps was approved and appeared in the App Store. This App provided access to developer diagnostic menus, allowed for stock Apps to be hidden and enabled an opt-out feature for iAds, Apple's developer driven advertisement system.[33]

Educational app[edit]

In July 2013, a tech education startup called Treehouse claimed that Apple had refused to let them release an iOS app that contained lessons about Android.[34]

Papers, Please[edit]

The video game Papers, Please, centered around the operation of a border checkpoint, was brought to iPad in December 2014, but developer Lucas Pope was forced to remove some pixellated nudity from the game's full-body scanner to be allowed to release the game for Apple devices.[35] After a few days, Pope was permitted to upload a full version of the game to the App Store including pixellated nudity in an apparent reversal by Apple.[35] However, it is still rated 17+ on the App Store.[36]

France Musique app removal[edit]

On May 4, 2015, Apple removed the France Musique application from its App store due to the airing of "inappropriate content" in a podcast.[37] The application displayed a painting by Édouard Manet, Olympia, depicting mild nudity. The podcast application was submitted to the App Store again, with a 17+ rating.[38]

Chaos Computer Club videos about security vulnerabilities[edit]

In October 2015, Apple rejected a custom streaming application for Apple TV that was created by some members of the Frankfurt branch of Chaos Computer Club, Europe's largest hacker association. The application was meant to show recordings of talks from Chaos Computer Club's conferences. According to a blog post that was written about the incident, Apple's reason was because "some of the videos show how to hack Apple devices".[39][self-published source?] The recordings are publicly available and are hosted on YouTube as well. Using the YouTube app still allows playback of the content on Apple devices.

Binding of Isaac[edit]

Apple banned the video game The Binding of Isaac from appearing in the iOS App Store due to its cartoon depictions of violence towards children.[40]

Telegram and Telegram X[edit]

In February 2018, Apple removed Telegram and Telegram X, encrypted messaging applications made by Telegram Messenger LLP, from the App Store due to content deemed inappropriate.[41] Apple specifically cited instances of child pornography that was made available to users, and subsequently banned the apps until the situation could be dealt with.[42]

InfoWars[edit]

Apple removed Infowars app from the App Store in September 2018 citing content that violated their policy against indecent material.[43][44] Apple's ban simply prevents users from downloading the app, but does not restrict access to those with the app installed.[43][45]

Tumblr[edit]

In November 2018, Apple removed the Tumblr app from the App Store due to Tumblr's failure to filter child pornography.[46] Tumblr uses a database of known child pornography to automatically detect and remove child pornography from their website, however they found evidence of images that were not in the database present on Tumblr.[46] In response to the ban, Tumblr removed the instances of child pornography and has since moved to ban all pornographic material on their platform as of December 17th, 2018.[46][47]

Historical games[edit]

In December 2018, Apple removed the strategy game Afghanistan '11 due to the fact that it featured real-life combatants. Slitherine, the developers of the game, countered that the main objectives focused on supporting Afghan civilians rather than defeating the Taliban. This followed a temporary ban of the game Ultimate General: Gettysburg for featuring the Confederate flag in historical context.[48]

Censorship by country[edit]

The following are instances of censorship and information control imposed by Apple in App Stores other than the United States App Store. Many were imposed due to pressure from foreign governments and were put into effect to comply with laws.

China[edit]

As early as 2017, Apple restricted the emoji of the flag of Taiwan on devices used in China.[49]

In 2018, Apple's restrictions on sending the word "Taiwan" or sending an emoji representing the flag of Taiwan on iDevices using a Chinese country code or language settings caused the devices to crash.[50][51][52]

In 2018, Apple removed apps from the Chinese App Store that allowed users to access content forbidden by the Chinese government. Many of these apps gave users access to virtual private networks that could allow them to circumvent the Great Firewall of China. Apple did not cite any Chinese laws, but claimed that the apps broke the laws of their local governments. Among the apps removed was VyprVPN, an app by Golden Frog, a company which had filed an amicus brief supporting Apple during the FBI–Apple encryption dispute. Apple is the first foreign global technology company to concede to the Chinese government's demands.[53]

In 2019, Bitter Winter, a daily magazine on human rights and religious liberty in China, reported that its app had also been removed from the Chinese App Store.[54]

Iran[edit]

In February of 2017, Apple restricted payment services in Iranian apps to comply with U.S. sanctions that forbade Iranian currency from entering the United States.[55] The Iranian apps responded by implementing an Iranian electronic payment service.[55]

In August of 2017, Apple removed many Iranian apps from the App Store citing U.S. sanctions placed on Iran.[55] While Apple has neither stores in Iran nor specific versions of the App Store for the country, Iranian citizens are able to get access to Apple products and content from external sources.[55] Apple removed many apps developed specifically for Iranians, including a ride-sharing service called Snapp, and a food delivery service called DelionFoods.[55]

In April of 2018, Apple blocked the Telegram app in Iran in response to concerns that access to the encrypted messaging service presented a threat to Iranian national security.[56]

Russia[edit]

In May of 2018, Apple played a role in the censorship of Telegram, an encrypted messaging app used globally.[57][58] Interested in surveying the encrypted messages, the Russian government demanded Telegram provide decryption keys to their Federal Security Service.[57][58] When Telegram refused, the Russian Government threatened Apple with legal repercussions if they did not block Telegram from the Russian App Store and eliminate the push notification feature.[57][58] The founder of Telegram, Pavel Durov, has publicly claimed Apple has restricted Telegram users across the world from updating their app; an action that could cause problems for Telegram's ability to meet regulations.[58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Apple iBooks Censors 'Sperm'?
  2. ^ Blake, Heidi (June 27, 2010). "Apple accused of censorship after porn disappears from iPad book chart". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  3. ^ "Gay Comics Publisher Declares Victory Over Apple". Bleeding Cool Comic Book, Movie, TV News. August 15, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Gay Comic Publisher Undaunted by Apple's iBook Censorship". December 21, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  5. ^ "Northwest Press Defies Apple Censorship of LGBT Content | Comic Book Legal Defense Fund". cbldf.org. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  6. ^ "Northwest Press Protests iBooks Ban With 'Apple Version'". Comics Alliance. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  7. ^ The songs that are too rude for iTunes, Michael Cragg, The Guardian October 27, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
  8. ^ iTunes glitch censors song titles, Friday 24 October 2008
  9. ^ a b Nicas, Jack (August 6, 2018). "Alex Jones and Infowars Content Is Removed From Apple, Facebook and YouTube" (Aug. 6, 2018). The New York Times Company. The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  10. ^ Nicas, Jack (August 7, 2018). "Gatekeepers or Censors? How Tech Manages Online Speech" (Aug. 7, 2018). The New York Times Company. The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  11. ^ "The Sun's 'obscene' Page 3 girls get iPhone newspaper app banned by Apple". London: Guardian. May 6, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  12. ^ Sherwood, James (May 5, 2009). "Apple bans Page 3 from iPhone app". Reghardware.co.uk. Archived from the original on November 26, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  13. ^ Logged in as click here to log out (May 24, 2009). "Apple backtracks over ban on ebook application Eucalyptus | Technology | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  14. ^ a b Jack Schofield (May 10, 2010). "Wikipedia's porn purge, and cleaning up for the iPad". The Guardian.
  15. ^ a b Pfanner, Eric (March 14, 2010). "Publishers Question Apple's Rejection of Nudity". NYTimes.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  16. ^ MG Siegler (February 23, 2010). "Apple, There's Pornography On My iPhone. The App Is Called Safari. You Made It". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  17. ^ "Gay iPorn - IPhone ready site".
  18. ^ Kincaid, Jason (February 20, 2010). "The New App Store Rules: No Swimsuits, No Skin, And No Innuendo". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on May 26, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  19. ^ Charles "Zan" Christensen (May 24, 2010). "iPad Publishing No Savior for Small Press, LGBT Comics Creators". Prism Comics. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  20. ^ Goebel, Markus (March 29, 2010). "Europe's biggest publisher embraces the WePad". Techcrunch. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  21. ^ a b Mercedes Bunz: German publisher in row with Apple over pin-ups in iPhone app The Guardian, March 9, 2010
  22. ^ http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2010/11/26/apple-bans-android-magazine-app/
  23. ^ a b Paul, Ian (April 16, 2010). "Apple Rejects Pulitzer Prize Winner's App". PC World. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  24. ^ a b c Stelter, Brian (April 16, 2010). "A Pulitzer Winner Gets Apple's Reconsideration". New York Times. Archived from the original on April 17, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  25. ^ "Slashdot Apple Story | Apple Blocks Cartoonist From App Store". Slashdot. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  26. ^ "Baby Shaker Game Causes Outrage | BBC". BBC News. April 24, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  27. ^ trent_reznor. "Trent Reznor (trent_reznor) on Twitter". Twitter.com. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  28. ^ "NIN iPhone app rejection". Forum.nin.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  29. ^ "Apple Allows NIN App Update". Uk.i4u.com. May 11, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  30. ^ "Rejected By Apple". Mac Observer. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  31. ^ Dredge, Stuart (September 14, 2011). "Apple bans satirical iPhone game Phone Story from its App Store". The Guardian. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
  32. ^ "Apple bans 'drone strike' app". Infosecurity Magazine. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  33. ^ "HiddenApps Allows iAds Opt-Out Without Jailbreak". akufu.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  34. ^ https://thenextweb.com/apps/2013/07/25/tech-education-startup-treehouse-branches-out-to-the-ipad/
  35. ^ a b Pope, Lucas. "Apple forces nude immigrants to cover up in iPad version of Papers, Please". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  36. ^ "Papers, Please on the App Store". App Store.
  37. ^ "Apple a depublié l'appli @francemusique pour cause de contenus adultes". Twitter. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
  38. ^ "Censurée par Apple, France Musique va classer " + de 17 ans " son application En savoir plus sur". Le Monde. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
  39. ^ Shaw, Peter (October 31, 2015). "Apple verbietet Inhalte vom Chaos Computer Club auf ihrer Plattform". Unthoughted Blog. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  40. ^ Grubb, Jeff (February 7, 2016). "Apple's gaming censorship continues: The Binding of Isaac blocked from App Store". VentureBeat. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  41. ^ Warren, Tom (February 1, 2018). "Telegram temporarily removed from Apple's App Store due to 'inappropriate content'". Vox Media, Inc. The Verge. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  42. ^ Statt, Nick (February 5, 2018). "Apple removed Telegram from the App Store over distribution of child pornography". Vox Media, Inc. The Verge. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  43. ^ a b Nicas, Jack (September 7, 2018). "Alex Jones's Infowars Is Removed From Apple's App Store" (Sept. 7, 2018). The New York Times Company. The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  44. ^ Etienne, Stefan (September 7, 2018). "Apple just permanently banned Infowars from the App Store". Vox Media, Inc. The Verge. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  45. ^ Bowden, John (September 7, 2018). "Apple bans Infowars app from store: report". CAPITOL HILL PUBLISHING CORP. The Hill. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  46. ^ a b c Porter, Jon. "Tumblr was removed from Apple's App Store over child pornography issues". The Verge. The Verge. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  47. ^ Stampler, Laura (December 3, 2018). "Tumblr to Ban 'Adult Content.' Some Users Aren't Happy". Fortune. Fortune. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  48. ^ Hall, Charlie (December 6, 2018). "Afghanistan '11, game with US and Taliban forces, removed from app store". Polygon. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  49. ^ Horwitz, Josh. "You can't use the Taiwan flag emoji on a Chinese iPhone". Quartz. Quartz. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  50. ^ Goodin, Dan (July 10, 2018). "iPhone crashing bug likely caused by code added to appease Chinese gov't". Ars Technica.
  51. ^ Wardle, Patrick (July 10, 2018). "A Remote iOS Bug". objective-see llc. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018.
  52. ^ Greenberg, Andy (July 10, 2018). "Apple's China-Friendly Censorship Caused an iPhone-Crashing Bug". Wired. Since at least early 2017, iOS has included that Chinese censorship function: Switch your iPhone's location setting to China, and the Taiwanese flag emoji essentially disappears from your phone, evaporating from its library of emojis and appearing as a "missing" emoji in any text that appears on the screen. That code likely represents a favor from Apple to the Chinese government, which for the last 70 years has maintained that Taiwan is a part of China and has no legitimate independent government.
  53. ^ Mozur, Paul (July 29, 2018). "Apple Removes Apps From China Store That Help Internet Users Evade Censorship" (Jul. 29, 2018). The New York Times Company. The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  54. ^ Marco Respinti, Apple Cooperates With the CCP to Censor "Bitter Winter", Bitter Winter, February 22, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  55. ^ a b c d e Erdbrink, Thomas; Goel, Vindu (August 24, 2018). "Apple, Citing U.S. Sanctions, Removes Popular Apps in Iran" (Aug. 24, 2018). The New York Times Company. The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  56. ^ Erdbrink, Thomas (May 1, 2018). "Iran, Like Russia Before It, Tries to Block Telegram App" (May 1, 2018). The New York Times Company. The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  57. ^ a b c Liao, Shannon (May 29, 2018). "Russia asks Apple to remove Telegram from the App Store". The Verge. The Verge. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  58. ^ a b c d Satariano, Adam; Nechepurenko, Ivan (May 31, 2018). "Telegram App Says Apple Is Blocking Updates Over Dispute With Russia" (May 31, 2018). The New York Times Company. The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2018.