Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.
Other names which have been applied to Central European Summer Time are Middle European Summer Time (MEST), Central European Daylight Saving Time (CEDT), and Bravo Time (after the second letter of the NATO phonetic alphabet). It is also in practice called CET, for example in invitations to events during the summer.
Period of observation
Since 1996, European Summer Time has been observed between 01:00 UTC (02:00 CET and 03:00 CEST) on the last Sunday of March, and 01:00 UTC on the last Sunday of October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.
The following countries and territories regularly use Central European Summer Time:
- Albania, since 1974
- Andorra, since 1985
- Austria, since 1980
- Belgium, since 1980
- Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1983
- Croatia, since 1983
- Czech Republic, since 1979
- Denmark (metropolitan), since 1980
- France (metropolitan), since 1976
- Germany, since 1980
- Gibraltar, since 1982
- Hungary, since 1980
- Italy, since 1968
- Kosovo, since 1983
- Liechtenstein, since 1981
- Luxembourg, since 1981
- Malta, since 1974
- Monaco, since 1976
- Montenegro, since 1983
- Netherlands, since 1977
- North Macedonia, since 1983
- Norway, since 1980
- Poland, since 1977
- San Marino, since 1966
- Serbia, since 1983
- Slovakia, since 1979
- Slovenia, since 1983
- Spain, since 1974 (except Canary Islands, which instead apply Western European Summer Time)
- Sweden, since 1980
- Switzerland, since 1981
- Vatican, since 1966
The following countries have also used Central European Summer Time in the past:
- Libya, 1951–1959, 1982–1989, 1996–1997, 2012–2013
- Lithuania, 1998–1999
- Portugal, 1993–1995
- Tunisia, 2005–2008
- "CEST time now". 24timezones.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
- "Time zone names- Middle European Daylight, Middle European Summer, Mitteieuropaische Sommerzeit (german)". www.worldtimezone.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
- "CEDT - Central European Daylight Time: Current local time". Time Difference. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
- "B – Bravo Time Zone (Time Zone Abbreviation)". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
- Joseph Myers (2009-07-17). "History of legal time in Britain". Retrieved 2009-10-11.
- Boffey, Daniel (26 March 2019). "European parliament votes to scrap daylight saving time from 2021". The Guardian.
- "CEST – Central European Summer Time (Time Zone Abbreviation)". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.