Chama Cha Mapinduzi

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Party of the Revolution

Chama Cha Mapinduzi  (Swahili)
AbbreviationCCM
ChairmanJohn Magufuli
Secretary-GeneralBashiru Ally
SpokespersonHumphrey Polepole
Vice chairmanPhilip Mangula
FounderJulius Nyerere
Aboud Jumbe
Founded5 February 1977 (1977-02-05)
Merger ofTANU and ASP
HeadquartersDodoma, Tanzania
NewspaperUhuru
Student wingShirikisho la Wanafunzi wa Taasisi za Elimu ya Juu
Youth wingUmoja wa Vijana wa CCM
Women's wingUmoja wa Wanawake Tanzania
Parents' wingWazazi
Membership (2013)8.4 million[1]
IdeologyDemocratic socialism
Social democracy
Historical:
Ujamaa
Political positionCentre-left To Left-Wing
International affiliationSocialist International,
Progressive Alliance
African affiliationFormer Liberation Movements of Southern Africa
Colours         
Bunge
287 / 393
Zanzibar HoR
81 / 85
EALA
7 / 9
SADC PF
4 / 5
Pan-African Parliament
4 / 5
Election symbol
A hoe and a hammer
Website
Political Party Website

The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; English: "Party of the Revolution") is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania and the second longest-ruling party in Africa, only after National Party of South Africa.[2][3] It was formed in 1977, following the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), which were the sole operating parties in mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar respectively.

TANU and its successor CCM have ruled Tanzania uninterruptedly since independence. Since the creation of a multi-party system, CCM has won the past five general elections in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. Jakaya Kikwete, its presidential candidate in 2005, won by a landslide, receiving more than 80% of the popular vote. In the 2010 election, it won 186 of the 239 constituencies, continuing to hold an outright majority in the National Assembly.[4]

History[edit]

The party was created on February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere, through the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), the ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), the ruling party in Zanzibar.

TANU/CCM has dominated the politics of Tanzania since the independence of Tanganyika in 1961. Due to the merger with the ASP, from 1977 it has also been the ruling party in Zanzibar, though there its grip on power has been more contested by the Civic United Front (CUF).

From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Every five years, its national chairman was automatically elected to a five-year term as president; he was confirmed in office via a referendum. At the same time, voters were presented with two CCM candidates for the National Assembly or Bunge. This changed on July 1, 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly.

Ideology[edit]

Originally a champion of African socialism, upholder of the system of collectivized agriculture known as Ujamaa and firmly oriented to the left, the CCM espouses today a more social democratic approach. CCM hopes to continue to modernize in order to ensure:

  1. Increased productivity which would boost the country's revenue
  2. Increased employment and improved management
  3. Acquisition of new and modern technology
  4. Increased and expanded local and international markets for our products, and;
  5. Improved and strengthened private sector serving as the engine of the national economy while the government sharpens its focus on provision of social services, infrastructure, security and governance of the state.

Similarly, the CCM's major foreign policy focus is economic diplomacy within the international system, and peaceful coexistence with neighbors.

Electoral performance[edit]

CCM has won all presidential elections at both union level and in Zanzibar at autonomous level under the multi-party system: 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. It also dominates the legislature.

In the elections for Zanzibar's presidency and House of Representatives, held on 30 October 2005, incumbent president and CCM candidate Amani Abeid Karume won with 53.18% of the vote, while the party won 30 seats out of 50.

In the national elections for Tanzania's presidency and National Assembly, held on 14 December 2005, Foreign Minister and CCM candidate Jakaya Kikwete won with 80.28% of the vote. Out of the 232 seats filled through direct election, the CCM won 206.

On 31 October 2010, Jakaya Kikwete was reelected president with 62.8% of the vote, while CCM obtained 186 out of the 239 directly elected seats.

On 30 October 2015 John Magufuli of CCM won the election with 58.46% of the vote.

CCM was admitted into the Socialist International as a full member at the SI's spring congress on 4–5 February 2013.[5]

Leadership[edit]

Current leaders[edit]

John Magufuli elected as Party Chairman on July 23, 2016.

Kikwete was elected to a second term in November 2012 for a five-year term, stepped down on July 23, 2016 to pave way for the new President to take over as the National Chairman.

National leaders[edit]

  • Chairman: John Magufuli
    John Pombe Magufuli, the National Chairman and the President of United Republic of Tanzania
  • Vice Chairman Zanzibar: Ali Mohamed Shein
  • Vice Chairman Mainland: Philip Mangula
  • Secretary General: Dr Bashiru Ally
  • Deputy Secretary General Zanzibar: Dr Abdalla Juma
  • Deputy Secretary General Mainland: Rodrick Mpogolo
  • Secretary for Organisation: Perreira Silima
    Abdulrahaman Kinana, former Secretary General for the Chama Cha Mapinduzi
  • Secretary for Party Ideology and Publicity: Humphrey Polepole
  • Secretary for Party Affairs and International Relations: Rtd Colonel Ngemela Lubinga
  • Secretary for Economic Affairs and Finance: Dr Frank Haule
    The party has a strong political base in rural Tanzania.
CCM Headquarters in the capital, Dodoma.
A mural of the party's candidates in the southern Tanzanian town of Lindi.
National Chairman
Name Tenure
Julius Nyerere 1977–1985
Ali Hassan Mwinyi 1986–1995
Benjamin Mkapa 1996–2005
Jakaya Kikwete 2006–2016
John Magufuli 2016–
National Vice Chairman (Mainland)
Name Tenure
John Malecela
Pius Msekwa 2007–2012
Philip Mangula 2012–present
National Vice Chairman (Zanzibar)
Name Tenure
Salmin Amour
Amani Abeid Karume ? – 2012
Ali Mohamed Shein 2012–present
Secretaries General
Name Tenure
Pius Msekwa 1977–1982
Rashidi Kawawa 1982–1990
Horace Kolimba 1990–1995
Lawrence Gama 1995–1997
Philip Mangula 1997–2007
Yusuf Makamba 2007–2011
Wilson Mukama 2011–2012
Abdulrahman Kinana 2012–May 2018

Electoral history[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election Party candidate Votes % Result
1980 Julius Nyerere 5,570,883 95.5% Elected Green tickY
1985 Ali Hassan Mwinyi 4,778,114 95.68% Elected Green tickY
1990 Ali Hassan Mwinyi 5,198,120 97.78% Elected Green tickY
1995 Benjamin Mkapa 4,026,422 61.82% Elected Green tickY
2000 Benjamin Mkapa 5,863,201 71.74% Elected Green tickY
2005 Jakaya Kikwete 9,123,952 80.28% Elected Green tickY
2010 Jakaya Kikwete 5,276,827 62.83% Elected Green tickY
2015 John Magufuli 8,882,935 58.46% Elected Green tickY

Bunge elections[edit]

Election Votes % Seats +/– Position
1980 5,417,099 100%
264 / 264
Increase 41 Increase 1st
1985 4,768,997 100%
274 / 274
Increase 10 Steady 1st
1990 5,198,120 97.78%
264 / 264
Decrease 10 Steady 1st
1995 3,814,206 59.22%
186 / 232
Decrease 78 Steady 1st
2000 4,628,127 65.19%
202 / 231
Increase 16 Steady 1st
2005 7,579,897 70%
264 / 324
Increase 62 Steady 1st
2010 4,641,830 60.20%
259 / 350
Decrease 5 Steady 1st
2015 8,021,427 55.04%
252 / 367
Decrease 2 Steady 1st

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kikwete deplores divisive politics". Daily News (Tanzania). 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  2. ^ O'Gorman, Melanie (26 April 2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: the roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 30 (2): 313–333. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.410.9369. doi:10.1080/02589001.2012.669566.
  3. ^ Manson, Katrina (30 September 2013). "Three issues loom over Tanzania's political scene". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  4. ^ Dagne, Ted (31 August 2011). "Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  5. ^ "Decisions of the Council" (PDF). Socialist International. February 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014.

External links[edit]