Chicken fried steak
|Place of origin||United States|
|Created by||Multiple claims|
|Main ingredients||Tenderized cube steak, flour|
Chicken fried steak, also known as country-fried steak, is an American breaded cutlet dish consisting of a piece of beefsteak (most often tenderized cube steak) coated with seasoned flour and pan-fried. It is sometimes associated with the Southern cuisine of the United States. It is breaded and fried with a technique similar to the more common fried chicken, hence "chicken fried."
Chicken fried steak resembles the Austrian dish wiener schnitzel and the Italian–South American dish milanesa, which is a tenderized veal or pork cutlet, coated with flour, eggs, chicken stock cube, and bread crumbs, and then fried. It is also similar to the recipe for Scottish collops.
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The precise origins of the dish are unclear, but many sources attribute its development to German and Austrian immigrants to Texas in the 19th century, who brought recipes for wiener schnitzel from Europe to the USA. Lamesa, the seat of Dawson County on the Texas South Plains, claims to be the birthplace of chicken fried steak, and hosts an annual celebration accordingly.
The Virginia Housewife, published in 1838 by Mary Randolph, has a recipe for veal cutlets that is one of the earliest recipes for a food like chicken fried steak. The recipe for what we now know as chicken fried steak was included in many regional cookbooks by the late 19th century. The Oxford English Dictionary's earliest attestation of the term "chicken-fried steak" is from a restaurant advertisement in the 19 June 1914 edition of the Colorado Springs Gazette newspaper.
A 1943 American cookbook recipe for wiener schnitzel includes a white salt and pepper cream gravy.
Chicken fried steak is prepared by taking a thin cut of beefsteak and tenderizing it by pounding, cubing, or forking. It is then immersed in egg batter and dredged in flour to which salt, pepper, and often other seasonings have been added (called breading). Chicken fried steak is typically deep-fried and served with a cream gravy, while country fried steak is typically fried in a skillet and served with a brown gravy. The frying medium has traditionally been shortening, but butter and lard have sometimes been used instead. Health concerns have led many cooks to replace the shortening with vegetable oil.
When there are problems with the breading separating from the meat while cooking, it can be very useful to first dredge the meat in the flour mixture, then the egg, and then the flour mixture again, and then let it sit for a half hour or more before cooking.
The cuts of steak used for chicken fried steak are usually the less expensive, less desirable ones, such as cube steak, chuck, round steak, and occasionally flank steak. The method may be used for chopped or ground beef, but it is not called chicken fried steak. Chicken fried steak is usually served for lunch or dinner topped with cream gravy and with mashed potatoes, vegetables, and biscuits or Texas toast served on the side. In the Midwest, it is also common to serve chicken fried steak for breakfast, along with toast and hash browns.
The steak can be served on a hamburger bun with cream gravy as a "chicken fried steak sandwich". It can also be cubed and stuffed in a baked potato with the gravy and cheese.
Alternatively, the tenderized steak may be cut into strips, breaded, deep fried, and served for breakfast with eggs and toast or for other meals in a basket with fries and cream gravy. Either is then known as "steak fingers".
Regionally, chicken fried steak may be known as country fried steak. While some recipes and restaurants will use a traditional peppered milk gravy on country fried steak, a variant using a brown, beef stock based gravy with onions is common, and is the primary difference between the two dishes in regions where both are served.
- Weaver, Bobby. "Chicken-Fried Steak". Oklahoma Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Archived from the original on January 23, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Dizone, Alyssa (2011-04-27). "Lamesa to have chicken-fried steak festival this weekend". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
- "OED Definition "chicken-fried, adj" (see n.1 under "chicken")". Oxford University Press. March 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.(subscription required)
- Victory Binding of the 'American Women's Cookbook', Wartime Edition, Ruth Berolzheimer 1943
- 'Oklahoma State Icons' Archived 2014-01-15 at the Wayback Machine
- 'Oklahoma State Emblems' Archived October 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- John T. Edge (2009-04-15). "Chicken Fried Steak, Steamed Sandwiches, Georgia Barbecue". New York Times.
- Denise Gee (March 1998). "Dueling steaks". Southern Living.
- John Raven. "Chicken-Fried Steak: One-third of the Big Three". Texas Cooking.
- "What is Country Fried Steak?". Food Network.
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