|Alternative names||Pollo alla parmigiana, chicken parm, parmy, parma|
|Main ingredients||chicken breast, tomato sauce, mozzarella, parmesan|
Chicken parmigiana, or chicken parmesan (Italian Pollo alla parmigiana), is a dish that consists of breaded chicken breast covered in tomato sauce and mozzarella, parmesan, or provolone cheese. A slice of ham or bacon is sometimes added. It is also known colloquially in the United States as chicken parm and in Australia as a parma, parmi, or parmy.
The dish originated from 20th century Italian diaspora. It has been speculated that the dish is based on a combination of the Italian melanzane alla Parmigiana, a dish using breaded eggplant slices instead of chicken, with a cotoletta, a breaded cutlet generally served without sauce or cheese in Italy.
The dish originated in the northeast United States from Italian immigrants, and became a popular staple in restaurants serving Italian-American cuisine by the 1950s. Home versions also grew in popularity. A recipe was published in the 1953 issue of the New York Herald Tribune that used frozen fried chicken patties or fillets along with other pre-processed foods to make a version of the dish at home. A recipe for chicken parmigiana was published in The New York Times in 1962.
In the United States and Canada, chicken parmigiana is often served as a main course, and sometimes with a side of, or on top of pasta. Many restaurants also offer chicken parm sandwiches. Upon arriving in America, Italian immigrants began to take advantage of America's affordable meat market, incorporating chicken into Parmigiana.
Chicken parmigiana was known in Australia by the 1950s, with a recipe published in the Weekly Times of Melbourne in 1951; however, this recipe included raisins, sweet blanched almonds, cloves, cinnamon and rice and lacked cheese, tomato sauce and breading. It was offered in restaurants in Adelaide as early as 1953. It is regularly served as a main meal throughout Australia, where it is considered a staple of pub food. In a 2019 interview that was broadcast on ABC Radio Hobart, food historian and author Jan O'Connell believes that chicken parmigiana did not become a pub staple until the 1980s where it has remained ever since. Before that time she believes that the parma was served in restaurants before being served in pubs.
Chicken parmigiana is typically served in Australia with a side of chips and salad, although there is some dispute as to whether the chips should be served under or next to the chicken. Its popularity has led to a specialized chicken parmigiana restaurant opening in Melbourne, and chicken parmigiana is the subject of reviews on dedicated websites which compare the dish as purchased from various pubs within a region. The dish's colloquial name varies across regions, with 'parmy', 'parmi' and 'parma' the most popular variations.
Carne pizzaiola is a dish derived from the Neapolitan tradition that features meat, often underneath cheese and cooked with tomatoes, olive oil, garlic, and white wine. Beef is used most often but it can be made with chicken and pork as well.
Parmo is a dish originating in Middlesbrough, England. It typically consists of fried breaded chicken underneath a white béchamel sauce and cheese. Parmo originated as escalope Parmesan, a derivative of chicken parmigiana.
In Argentina, a variation of milanesa a la napolitana is made with chicken instead of the usual beef, similar to chicken parmagiana. It is sometimes underneath ham, bacon, or a fried egg and is usually served with french fries.
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- Clark, Melissa (January 30, 2015). "Parmigiana Dishes to Warm Weary Souls". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
Veal and chicken parmigiana, along with their cousins meatball, sausage and shrimp, are more recent adaptations, created by Italian immigrants in America who could afford to use meat in place of the vegetables they relied on in the Old Country.
- Bochenski, Natalie (April 16, 2015). "Brisbane man Stephen Humphreys' quest to find the city's best Parmigiana". Brisbane Times. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
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WHAT do you get if you take the humble meat pie and the Italian chicken parmigiana and mash them together?Link(subscription required) via EBSCO
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Chicken Parmigiano–Generally this method is reserved for a breaded cutlet of veal, but it's amazing how good and unusual a dish you achieve by arranging heated quick-frozen southern fried chicken on the serving dish. Top each piece with a thin slice of cheese. The Italians would use Mozzarella; Muenster is good too, and so is mild American. A sprinkle of grated Parmesan over the top adds tang. Place under a broiler or in the oven till the cheese melts and then pour around a tomato sauce made by heating Hunt's tomato sauce with one clove garlic finely crushed, one-half bay leaf, one teaspoon olive oil, one-fourth to one-half teaspoon basil, oregano or marjoram. Simmer eight to ten minutes.Link(subscription required) via ProQuest.
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- "Prize recipes". Weekly Times (4288). Victoria, Australia. August 29, 1951. p. 38. Retrieved March 24, 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
Chicken Parmigiana: One fowl, 1/2 lb. rice, 1/4 lb. butter, 1 onion, 1/2 cup stoned raisins, ? oz. sweet blanched and shredded almonds, quart white stock, 2 cloves, inch stick cinnamon, cayenne pepper, salt. Have the stock boiling. Put fowl in and boil for 20 minutes. Heat butter in stewpan and fry the almonds and raisins, add skinned and shredded onion. When these are brown, strain from butter and place aside. Reheat butter, put in rice and fry it light brown. Strain off butter and add stock by degrees to the rice until it is quite tender. Make a well in centre of rice lay in fowl and cook together for 40 minutes.
- "I Say". The Mail (Adelaide). 43, (2, 164). South Australia. November 28, 1953. p. 55. Retrieved March 24, 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
They ask for steak and eggs, but change to Chicken Parmigiana when the waiter explains that it's chicken cooked in light wine and served with grated cheeseCS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
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- Media related to Chicken parmesan at Wikimedia Commons