Chief of the Defence Staff (Spain)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Chief of the Defence Staff
Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa
Coat of Arms of the Spanish Defence Staff-EMAD.svg
Coat of Arms of the Defence Staff
Spanish Chief of the Defence Staff flag.png
Flag of the Chief of the Defence Staff
Spanish Defence Staff
Ministry of Defence
StyleThe Most Excellent
StatusHighest-ranking military officer
AbbreviationJEMAD
Member ofDefence Staff
National Defence Council
National Security Council
Council of Chiefs of Staff
Reports toPrime Minister
Minister of Defence
SeatVitruvio Street, Madrid
NominatorPrime Minister
After being discussed in the Council of Ministers
AppointerMonarch
Countersigned by the Prime Minister
Term lengthNo fixed term
Constituting instrumentBasic Criteria of National Defence and Military Organization Act of 1984
PrecursorChairman of the Board of Chiefs of Staff
FormationJanuary 11, 1984
First holderAdmiral General Ángel Liberal Lucini
Salary 122,000 per year
Website‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Website of the Defence Staff

The Chief of the Defence Staff (Spanish: Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa) (JEMAD) is the highest-ranking military officer in the Spanish Armed Forces and is the principal military advisor to the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defence, the National Defence Council and the National Security Council. It's the fourth military authority of the country after the King, the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence because the Secretary of State of Defence and the Under Secretary of Defence do not have military authority.

The JEMAD has three different roles: the support role, assisting and advising the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence in military affairs and supports the Under Secretary of Defence in its duties over the military personnel; the strategic role, being the official in charge of design the military strategy, directs the military operations (with the supervision of the Minister), assign the military forces for the missions and give orders to the others Chief of Staffs to appoint new commanders; and the preparatory role, coordinating the Chiefs of Staff and giving orders to them to prepare the troops, oversees the internal organization of the different branches, establish the common rules and regulations of the Armed Forces, ensures compliance with military discipline, staff motivation and their well-being and establish the organization of the Armed Forces (in coordination with the others Chiefs of Staff).[1]

The Chief of the Defence Staff convenes the meetings and coordinates the efforts of the Defence Staff (EMAD), an auxiliary body of command and support to the Chief of Defence Staff comprising the Chief of the Defence Staff, the Chief of the Joint Defence Staff, the Commander of the Operations Command, the Deputy Commander of the Operations Command, the Director of the Armed Forces Intelligence Center, the Chief Commander of the Joint Cyber-Defence Command, the Director of the Higher Center for National Defence Studies, the Admiral of the Fleet, the Chief General of the Air Combat Command of the Air Force and the Chief of the Military Emergencies Unit.[2]

Although in some legally established situations the Chiefs of Staff of the Army, Navy and Air Force advise the Chief of the Defence Staff, they do not directly depend from the JEMAD but from the Minister of Defence.

Organization and assistants[edit]

The Chief of the Defence Staff has not a Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff, and when its unable to fulfill his functions, it's replaced by the most senior Chief of Staff of the Army, Navy or Air Force.

The JEMAD is assisted by the Joint Defence Staff, the main auxiliary body of the Defence Staff directed by the Chief of the Joint Defence Staff, which at the same times is assisted by the Secretary General of the Joint Defence Staff. The JEMAD it's also assisted by a personal secretary and by the Chief of Economic Affairs, the Chief of Human Resources and the Chief of Security and Services.

In matters of military strategy is advised by the Commander of the Operations Command and in cyberdefence by the Chief Commander of the Joint Cyber-Defence Command. Directly from the JEMAD depends the Spanish Armed Forces Intelligence Center in charge of recollecting military information and advise the JEMAD, the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Staff of the Navy and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force) in counter-intelligence and security.

Other bodies that also depend from the JEMAD are the Military Emergencies Unit, the Command of Maritime Security and Surveillance and the Command of Defence and Air Operations.

History[edit]

The creation of the first Military Staff in Spain dates back to 1801 when on the occasion of the War of Spain and France against Portugal, an army was created under the command of Godoy, which included a special structure called the General Staff, also called the General Staff of the Armies in Operations.[3]

On June 9, 1810 is constituted for the first time in Spain the Body of General Staff, separated completely from the other Armies branches, following their top officials different military careers. General Blake was its first Chief. Once the War of Independence was over, by Royal Order of June 27, 1814, Ferdinand VII suppressed the General Staff Body. In 1820 it was created for the second time, but its existence was short, and in 1823 it disappeared again.[4]

In 1837, experience had shown the ineffectiveness of all the decisions that had been taken to replace the Body of General Staff and the General Staff was again established for the proper functioning of the Army. Its new organization was approved on January 1, 1838 and in front of it was a Director-General.[5]

In 1904, the Central Staff of the Army (EMCE) appeared, which was suppressed in 1912 and returned to the previous organization, the General Staff Body; the EMCE was re-created in 1916 and abolished in 1925. During the Second Republic the Body of General Staff was finally suppressed and the EMCE was re-created.[6]

After the Civil War, on August 31, 1939, the High Command was created, the true predecessor of the current Defence Staff, with Brigadier General Juan Vigón in front as Chief of the General Staff. The High Command was active throughout Francoist Spain and part of the Spanish transition to democracy, disappearing on June 13, 1980.[7]

Three years earlier, in 1977, the Joint Chiefs of Staff had been created as the principal body of the General Staff to advise the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence and whose chairman was also the Chief of the General Staff. This body assumed all the functions of the EMP when it was suppressed.

In 1984, the Joint Chiefs of Staff was institutionalized and the position of Chief of Defence Staff (JEMAD) was created, replacing the Chairman of the Board of Chiefs of Staff. At the same time, the Defence Staff was created to support the JEMAD. The Joint Chiefs of Staff was in force until 2005, when the new National Defence Organic Act created the National Defence Council as an advisory body to the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence.[8]

List of chiefs of the Defence Staff[edit]

To see previous Chiefs of Staff, go to Defence High Command and Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff.

† denotes people who died in office.

Chief of the JEMAD Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Commander-in-Chief Ref
1
Ángel Liberal Lucini [es]
Lucini, Ángel LiberalAdmiral General
Ángel Liberal Lucini [es]
(1921–2006)
11 January 198431 October 19862 years, 293 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I[9][10]
2
Gonzalo Puigcerver Romá [es]
Romá, Gonzalo PuigcerverLieutenant General
Gonzalo Puigcerver Romá [es]
(1924–2012)
31 October 198618 May 19903 years, 199 daysEmblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[11][12]
3
Gonzalo Rodríguez Martín-Granizo [es]
Martín-Granizo, Gonzalo RodríguezAdmiral
Gonzalo Rodríguez Martín-Granizo [es]
(1928–1992)
18 May 199016 December 1992 †2 years, 212 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I[13]
4
José Rodrigo Rodrigo [es]
Rodrigo, José RodrigoLieutenant General
José Rodrigo Rodrigo [es]
(1928–2016)
23 December 199226 July 19963 years, 216 daysEmblem of the Spanish Army.svg
Army
Juan Carlos I[14][15]
5
Santiago Valderas Cañestro
Cañestro, SantiagoGeneral of the Air
Santiago Valderas Cañestro
(1933–2019)
26 July 199615 December 20004 years, 142 daysEmblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[16][17][18]
6
Antonio Moreno Barberá
Barberá, Antonio MorenoAdmiral General
Antonio Moreno Barberá
15 December 200025 June 20043 years, 193 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I[19][20][21]
7
Félix Sanz Roldán
Roldán, Félix SanzGeneral of the Army
Félix Sanz Roldán
(born 1945)
25 June 200418 July 20084 years, 23 daysEmblem of the Spanish Army.svg
Army
Juan Carlos I[22][23][24]
8
José Julio Rodríguez Fernández
Fernández, José Julio RodríguezGeneral of the Air
José Julio Rodríguez Fernández
(born 1948)
18 July 200830 December 20113 years, 165 daysEmblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[25][26]
9
Fernando García Sánchez [es]
Sánchez, Fernando GarcíaAdmiral General
Fernando García Sánchez [es]
(born 1953)
30 December 201124 March 20175 years, 84 daysEmblem of the Spanish Navy.svg
Navy
Juan Carlos I
Felipe VI
[27][28]
10
Fernando Alejandre Martínez
Martínez, Fernando AlejandreGeneral of the Army
Fernando Alejandre Martínez
(born 1956)
24 March 2017Incumbent2 years, 93 daysEmblem of the Spanish Army.svg
Army
Felipe VI[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Royal Decree 872/2014, of October 10, which establishes the basic organization of the Armed Forces". BOE.es. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Ministry of Defence Order 166/2015, of January 21, by which the basic organization of the Armed Forces is developed". www.boe.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  3. ^ "ESFAS History". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  4. ^ "War School of the Army". Spanish Army. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Royal decree of 1838 reorganizing the army's staff" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Institute of History and Military Culture".
  7. ^ "Law 26/1980, of May 19, by which the High Staff is suppressed, once transferred the functions to the Board of Chiefs of Staff and High Defence Organizations". boe.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  8. ^ "Organic Act 5/2005, of November 17, of the National Defence". www.boe.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  9. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 149/1984, de 11 de enero, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Almirante don Angel Liberal Lucini. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  10. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 2296/1986, de 31 de octubre, por el que cesa como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa, el Almirante don Angel Liberal Lucini. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  11. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 2299/1986, de 31 de octubre, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Ejército del Aire don Gonzalo Puigcerver Roma. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  12. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 620/1990, de 18 de mayo, por el que se dispone el cese del Teniente General del Ejército del Aire, don Gonzalo Puigcerver Romá como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  13. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) El jefe de la cúpula militar muere de un derrame cerebral.. El País (17/12/92).
  14. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1596/1992, de 23 de diciembre, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General don José Rodrigo Rodrigo.. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  15. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1848/1996, de 26 de julio, por el que se dispone el cese del Teniente General del Cuerpo General de las Armas del Ejército de Tierra don José Rodrigo Rodrigo como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa.. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  16. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 852/1999, de 21 de mayo, por el que se promueve al empleo de General del Aire al Teniente General don Santiago Valderas Cañestro, Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  17. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1849/1996, de 26 de julio, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Cuerpo General del Ejército del Aire don Santiago Valderas Cañestro. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  18. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 3429/2000, de 15 de diciembre, por el que se dispone el cese del General del Aire del Cuerpo General del Ejército del Aire don Santiago Valderas Cañestro como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  19. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Moreno Barberá será nombrado el próximo viernes nuevo JEMAD
  20. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 3430/2000, de 15 de diciembre, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Almirante General del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Antonio Moreno Barberá. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  21. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1558/2004, de 25 de junio, por el que se dispone el cese del Almirante General del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Antonio Moreno Barberá como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  22. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Félix Sanz Roldán, nombrado nuevo Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa
  23. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1559/2004, de 25 de junio, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Cuerpo General de las Armas del Ejército de Tierra don Félix Sanz Roldán. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  24. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1248/2008, de 18 de julio, por el que se dispone el cese del General de Ejército del Cuerpo General de las Armas del Ejército de Tierra don Félix Sanz Roldán como Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  25. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1249/2008, de 18 de julio, por el que se nombra Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Teniente General del Cuerpo General del Ejército del Aire don José Julio Rodríguez Fernández. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  26. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 1892/2011, de 30 de diciembre, por el que se dispone el cese del General de Aire don José Julio Rodríguez Fernández como Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  27. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) boe.es (31 December 2011). "Real Decreto 1903/2011, de 30 de diciembre, por el que se nombra Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Defensa al Almirante del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Fernando García Sánchez" (in Spanish).
  28. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Real Decreto 287/2017, de 24 de marzo, por el que se dispone el cese del Almirante General del Cuerpo General de la Armada don Fernando García Sánchez como Jefe de Estado Mayor de la Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  29. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) New head of the Joint Chiefs of Spanish Defence Staff, General of the Army Fernando Alejandre Martínez. The Spanish Official Gazette (28/03/17).