Clifford Cocks
Clifford Cocks  

Clifford Cocks at the Royal Society admissions day in London, July 2015  
Born  Clifford Christopher Cocks 28 December 1950 ^{[1]} Prestbury, Cheshire, United Kingdom 
Nationality  British 
Alma mater  University of Cambridge (BA) 
Known for 

Awards 

Scientific career  
Fields  Cryptography 
Institutions 
Clifford Christopher Cocks CB FRS (born 28 December 1950) is a British mathematician and cryptographer. In 1973, while working at the United Kingdom Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), he invented a public key cryptography algorithm equivalent to what would become (in 1978) the RSA algorithm.
The idea was classified information and his insight remained hidden for 24 years, despite being independently invented by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman in 1977.^{[4]}^{[5]} Publickey cryptography using prime factorisation is now part of nearly every Internet transaction.^{[6]}^{[7]}
Contents
Education[edit]
Cocks was educated at Manchester Grammar School and went on to study the Mathematical Tripos as an undergraduate at King's College, Cambridge. He continued as a postgraduate student^{[citation needed]} at the University of Oxford, where he specialised in number theory.
Career[edit]
Nonsecret encryption[edit]
Cocks left Oxford to join CommunicationsElectronics Security Group (CESG), an arm of GCHQ, in September 1973. Soon after, Cocks was told about James H. Ellis' nonsecret encryption, ^{[8]} an idea which had been published in 1969 but never successfully implemented. Several people had attempted creating the required oneway functions, but Cocks, with his background in number theory, decided to use prime factorisation,^{[9]} and did not even write it down at the time.
With this insight, he quickly developed what later became known as the RSA encryption algorithm. ^{[10]}^{[11]}
GCHQ was not able to find a way to use the algorithm, and treated it as classified information. The scheme was also passed to the NSA.^{[9]} With a military focus, and low computing power, the power of publickey cryptography was unrealised in both organisations:
I judged it most important for military use. In a fluid military situation you may meet unforeseen threats or opportunities. ... if you can share your key rapidly and electronically, you have a major advantage over your opponent. Only at the end of the evolution from BernersLee [in 1989] designing an open internet architecture for CERN, its adaptation and adoption for the Arpanet ... did public key cryptography realise its full potential. Ralph Benjamin^{[9]}
In 1977 the algorithm was independently invented and published by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman, who named it after their initials. There is no evidence of a hint or leak, conscious or unconscious, and Cocks has dismissed the idea.^{[9]} The British achievement remained secret until 1997.^{[12]}
Public revelation[edit]
In 1987, the GCHQ had plans to release the work, but Peter Wright's Spycatcher MI5 memoir caused them to delay revealing the research by ten years.^{[13]} 24 years after its discovery, on 18 December 1997, Cocks revealed of the GCHQ history of publickey research in a public talk. James Ellis had died on 25 November 1997, a month before the public announcement was made.
Identitybased encryption[edit]
In 2001, Cocks developed one of the first secure identitybased encryption (IBE) schemes, based on assumptions about quadratic residues in composite groups. The Cocks IBE scheme is not widely used in practice due to its high degree of ciphertext expansion. However, it is currently one of the few IBE schemes which do not use bilinear pairings, and rely for security on more wellstudied mathematical problems.
Awards and honours[edit]
In 1968, Cocks won a silver medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad.^{[14]}
As of 2003^{[update]}, Clifford Cocks held the post of Chief Mathematician at GCHQ. He established the Heilbronn Institute for Mathematical Research at the University of Bristol.^{[citation needed]}
Cocks was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 2008 (the citation describes him as "Counsellor, Foreign and Commonwealth Office").^{[15]} He was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Bristol in 2008,^{[16]} and an honorary Doctor of Science from the University of Birmingham in 2015.^{[17]}
In 2010, he, James Ellis and Malcolm Williamson were honoured by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for their part in publickey cryptography.^{[18]}
Cocks was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2015,^{[19]} his certificate of election reads:
Clifford Cocks is distinguished for his work in cryptography. He was the first to devise a practicable implementation of public key cryptography, and more recently a practicable scheme for identity based public key encryption. Such achievements have been fundamental in ensuring the security of the world's electronic communications, security that we now take for granted.^{[2]}
References[edit]
 ^ COCKS, Clifford Christopher. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2016 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription or UK public library membership required) (subscription required)
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Anon (2015). "Certificate of election: EC/2015/07 Cocks, Clifford Christopher". London: royalsociety.org. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
 ^ Anon (2015). "Mr Clifford Cocks CB FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015.
 ^ "Clifford Cocks Oration". University of Bristol. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
 ^ "Dr Clifford Cocks CB". University of Bristol. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
 ^ New York Times article on GCHQ's disclosure of the work of Cocks and Williamson
 ^ Cocks, Clifford (2001). "An Identity Based Encryption Scheme Based on Quadratic Residues". Cryptography and Coding. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2260. Springer. pp. 360–363. doi:10.1007/3540453253_32.
 ^ "James Ellis' account of the invention of nonsecret encryption". Archived from the original on 10 June 2003. Retrieved 10 June 2003.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} GCHQ pioneers on birth of public key crypto
 ^ Cocks' November 1973 internal GCHQ note on his discovery
 ^ U.S. Patent 6,731,755
 ^ Wired article on public key cryptography at GCHQ
 ^ Simon Singh (1999). The Code Book: The Secret History of Codes and Codebreaking. Fourth Estate. ISBN 1857028791.
 ^ Clifford Cocks's results at International Mathematical Olympiad
 ^ "New Year Honours—United Kingdom" (PDF). The London Gazette. 28 December 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
 ^ "Honorary degrees awarded". University of Bristol. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
 ^ (PDF) https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/senate/honorarygraduatessince2000.pdf. Missing or empty
title=
(help)  ^ IEEE honours GCHQ public key crypto inventors
 ^ "Mr Clifford Cocks CB FRS". Royal Society. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
 1950 births
 Living people
 People educated at Manchester Grammar School
 Alumni of King's College, Cambridge
 Government Communications Headquarters cryptographers
 Publickey cryptographers
 Modern cryptographers
 Fellows of the Royal Society
 Companions of the Order of the Bath
 International Mathematical Olympiad participants