Climate of Europe

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Biomes of Europe and surrounding regions:
     tundra      alpine tundra      taiga      montane forest
     temperate broadleaf forest      mediterranean forest      temperate steppe      dry steppe

Western Europe has an Oceanic climate, far southern Europe has a Mediterranean climate, and central-eastern Europe is classified as having a Continental climate. The climate of western Europe is strongly conditioned by the Gulf Stream, which keeps mild air (for the latitude) over Northwestern Europe in the winter months, especially in Ireland, the UK and coastal Norway.

Parts of the central European plains have a hybrid oceanic/continental climate. Four seasons occur in most of Europe away from the Mediterranean. The coastal lowlands near and on the Mediterranean Sea, have more of a wet and dry season pattern, with winter the season of most rainfall, and summers a time of few rainy days.

Gulf Stream[edit]

An Image of the Gulf Stream's path and its related branches.
The average number of days per year with precipitation.
The average amount of sunshine yearly (hours).

The climate of Western Europe is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The Mediterranean's waters are not as deep as the large oceans, allowing it to become a heat store tempering winters along its coastlines.[2] The Gulf Stream is nicknamed "Europe's central heating", because it makes Europe's climate warmer and wetter than it would otherwise be.

Compared to areas located in the higher middle latitudes, parts of western Europe have mild winters and higher annual temperatures(though summers are cooler than locations at the same latitude). Berlin, Germany; Calgary, Canada; and Irkutsk, in the Asian part of Russia, lie on around the same latitude; January temperatures in Berlin average around 8 °C (15 °F) higher than those in Calgary (although Calgary sits 1200m higher in altitude), and they are almost 22 °C (40 °F) higher than average temperatures in Irkutsk.[2]

This difference is even larger on the northern part of the continent. The January average in Brønnøysund, Norway,[3] is almost 15 °C warmer than the January average in Nome, Alaska,[4] both towns are situated upwind on the west coast of the continents at 65°N, and as much as 42 °C warmer than the January average in Yakutsk which is actually slightly further south. Further south the oceanic climate of Europe compares thermally to North America, at around 48°N Rennes, France has about an equal average temperature throughout the year to Seattle, Washington, although the latter has drier summers with much wetter winters.[5]

Temperature[edit]

Difference between high and low temperature records

Most of Europe sees seasonal temperatures consistent with temperate climates in other parts of the world, though summers north of the Mediterranean Sea are cooler than most temperate climates experience in summer. Among the cities with a population over 100,000 people in Europe, the coldest winters are mostly found in Russia, with daily highs in winter averaging 0 C (32 F), while the mildest winters in the continent are in coastal southern Spain and the southernmost coast of Crete.

Almería, Málaga, Cádiz, Algeciras and Ierapetra average over 12 °C (54 °F) in January with 16–20 °C (61–68 °F) during the day. The hottest summers of the continent occur in cities and towns of the hinterland of southern Spain: July average highs in this region are 36.2 °C (97.2 °F) in Seville and 36.9 °C (98.4 °F) in Cordoba.

Average daytime temperature (°C)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Helsinki[6] −1.3 −1.9 1.6 7.6 14.4 18.5 21.5 19.8 14.6 9.0 3.7 0.5 9.0
Minsk[7] −2.1 −1.4 3.8 12.2 18.7 21.5 23.6 22.8 16.7 10.2 2.9 −1.2 10.8
Budapest[8] 1.2 4.5 10.2 16.3 21.4 24.4 26.5 26.0 22.1 16.1 8.1 3.1 15.0
London[9] 8.1 8.6 11.6 14.6 18.1 21.0 23.4 23.1 20.0 15.5 11.3 8.4 15.3
Paris[10] 6.9 8.2 11.8 14.7 19.0 21.8 24.4 24.6 20.8 15.8 10.4 7.8 15.5
Bucharest[11] 1.5 4.1 10.2 18.0 23.3 26.8 28.8 28.5 24.6 18.0 10.0 3.8 16.5
Rome[12] 14.0 15.1 18.3 21.1 25.9 29.6 32.3 32.5 27.2 23.0 18.1 15.3 22.4
Barcelona[13][14] 13.9 14.3 16.4 18.9 22.5 26.1 28.6 29.0 26.0 22.5 17.1 14.5 20.6
Lisbon[15] 14.8 16.2 18.8 19.8 22.1 25.7 27.9 28.3 26.5 22.5 18.2 15.3 21.5
Malta[16] 15.6 15.6 17.3 19.8 24.1 28.6 31.5 31.8 28.5 25.0 20.7 17.1 23.0
Málaga[17] 16.8 17.7 19.6 21.4 24.3 28.1 30.5 30.8 28.2 24.1 20.1 17.5 23.3
Athens[18] 13.4 14.3 17.1 21.2 26.6 31.7 34.4 34.3 29.7 24.1 18.7 14.4 23.3
Average sea temperature (°C)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Gdańsk [1] 4 3 3 4 8 13 16 18 15 12 9 6
Brighton [2] 9 8 8 9 11 13 15 17 17 16 13 11
Marseille [3] 13 13 13 14 16 18 21 22 21 18 16 14
Lisbon [4] 15 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 19 18 17
Barcelona [5] 13 13 13 14 17 20 23 25 23 20 17 15
Rome [6] 16 15 16 17 20 22 26 27 25 21 19 16
Athens [7] 16 15 15 16 18 21 24 24 24 21 19 17
Naples [8] 16 15 16 18 20 23 27 28 26 23 20 17
Valencia [9] 14 14 14 16 19 23 25 26 25 22 19 16
Málaga [10] 16 16 16 17 18 21 23 24 22 20 18 17
Malta [11] 16 16 15 16 18 21 24 26 25 23 21 18

Tornadoes[edit]

The Netherlands has the highest average number of recorded tornadoes per area of any country in the world (more than 20, or 0.0005 per km2), annually), followed by the UK (around 33, or 0.0001 per km2), per year),[19][20] but most are small and cause minor damage. In absolute number of events, ignoring area, the UK experiences more tornadoes than any other European country, excluding waterspouts.[21] Europe uses its own tornado scale, known as the TORRO scale, which ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  2. ^ a b "European Climate". World Book. World Book, Inc. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
  3. ^ Brønnøysund
  4. ^ Nome
  5. ^ Yakutsk
  6. ^ Helsinki
  7. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 September 2007.
  8. ^ "Met.hu".
  9. ^ "Greenwich climate".
  10. ^ "PREVISIONS METEO FRANCE - Site Officiel de Météo-France - Prévisions gratuites à 15 jours sur la France et à 10 jours sur le monde".
  11. ^ "Bucuresti Baneasa Climate Normals 1961–1990". www.NOAA.gov. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  12. ^ http://clima.meteoam.it/AtlanteClimatico/pdf/%28239%29Roma%20Ciampino.pdf
  13. ^ "Weather Information for Barcelona - World Meteorological Organization (United Nations)".
  14. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Barcelona / Aeropuerto - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología". Archived from the original on 2011-02-16.
  15. ^ "Monthly Averages for Lisbon, Portugal". Instituto de Meteorologia. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
  16. ^ "Average temperatures in Malta 1981–2010". Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  17. ^ "Valores climatológicos normales. Málaga - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología". Retrieved 2018-01-24.
  18. ^ Το αρχείο του Θησείου (in Greek). Meteoclub. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  19. ^ J Holden, A Wright (2003-03-13). "UK tornado climatology and the development of simple prediction tools" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society. 130 (598): 1009–1021. Bibcode:2004QJRMS.130.1009H. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.147.4293. doi:10.1256/qj.03.45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  20. ^ Staff (2002-03-28). "Natural Disasters: Tornadoes". BBC Science and Nature. BBC. Archived from the original on 2002-10-14. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  21. ^ Nikolai Dotzek (2003-03-20). "An updated estimate of tornado occurrence in Europe" (PDF). Atmospheric Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  22. ^ Meaden, Terrance (2004). "Wind Scales: Beaufort, T — Scale, and Fujita's Scale". Tornado and Storm Research Organisation. Archived from the original on 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2009-09-11.