2020 Summer Olympics
|Host city||Tokyo, Japan|
|Events||339 in 33 sports (50 disciplines)|
|Stadium||New National Stadium|
|Part of a series on|
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (Japanese: 第三十二回オリンピック競技大会 Hepburn: Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 22 July.
Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 7 September 2013. These Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympic Games to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, the first city in Asia to host the Olympic Games twice, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.
These Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' program to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, and the return of baseball and softball (which were removed from the summer program after 2008).
- 1 Bidding process
- 2 Development and preparation
- 3 The Games
- 4 Calendar
- 5 Marketing
- 6 Concerns and controversies
- 7 Broadcasting
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Host city election
The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority.
|2020 Summer Olympics host city election|
|City||NOC name||Round 1||Runoff||Round 2|
Development and preparation
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen (over 3.67 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost 400 billion yen and would be funded primarily by private investors, but East Japan Railway Company (East JR) is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport. Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area. There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.
Venues and infrastructure
It was confirmed in February 2012 that the National Stadium in Tokyo, which was the central venue for the 1964 Summer Olympics, would be demolished and reconstructed. The project would receive a 100 billion yen upgrade for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics. A design competition for the New National Stadium was launched, and the Japan Sport Council announced in November 2012 that, out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects had been awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, and expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000. Demolition of the old stadium was completed in May 2015, but Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the new stadium would be scrapped amid public discontent over the inflated building costs, and a second competition was launched to find an alternative design. In Autumn 2015, a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as the winning project. Kuma's design decreased the stadium's capacity, allowing it to be interchangeable between 60,000 and 80,000 depending on the event, much like the Stade de France. As a result of the changes, the New National Stadium will not be completed in time for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, as originally planned.
In September 2016, a review panel stated that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could increase to four times the original estimate; a major overhaul of the current plan was therefore proposed in order to reduce costs, including moving venues outside the city of Tokyo. In October 2018, the Board of Audit issued a report stating that the total cost of the venues could exceed US$25 billion.
Of the 33 competition venues in Tokyo, 28 are within 8 kilometres (4.97 miles) of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed.
Seven venues for nine sports will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were also used for the 1964 Summer Olympics.
|New National Stadium||Opening and closing ceremonies||60,102||Under construction|
|Yoyogi National Gymnasium||Handball||13,291||Existing|
|Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium||Table tennis||10,000||Existing|
|Tokyo International Forum||Weightlifting||5,012||Existing|
|Imperial Palace Gardens||Athletics (marathon, race walk)||5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along route||Temporary|
|Musashinomori Park||Road cycling (start road races)||Temporary|
Tokyo Bay Zone
|Kasai Rinkai Park||Canoeing (slalom)||8,000||Ready, built for the games|
|Oi Hockey Stadium||Field hockey||15,000||Under construction|
|Tokyo Aquatics Centre||Aquatics (swimming, diving, synchronized swimming)||15,000||Under construction|
|Tokyo Tatsumi International Swimming Center||Water polo||3,635||Existing|
|Yumenoshima Park||Archery||7,000||Under construction|
|Ariake Arena||Volleyball||15,000||Under construction|
|Olympic BMX Course||BMX cycling||6,000||Under construction|
|Ariake Gymnastics Centre||Gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, trampoline)||10,000||Temporary|
|Ariake Coliseum||Tennis||20,000 = 10,000 centre court; 5,000 court 1; 3,000 court 2; 2,000 match courts (8x250)||Existing, renovated|
|Odaiba Marine Park||Triathlon||5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along route||Existing with temporary stands|
|Aquatics (marathon swimming)|
|Shiokaze Park||Beach volleyball||12,000||Temporary|
|Central Breakwater and Sea Forest Waterway||Equestrian (eventing)||20,000||Existing with temporary infrastructure|
|Aomi Urban Sports Venue||3x3 basketball||5,000||Temporary|
Twelve venues for 16 sports will be situated farther than 8 kilometres (5 miles) from the Olympic Village.
|Camp Asaka||Shooting||Existing, renovated|
|Musashino Forest Sports Plaza||Modern pentathlon (fencing)||10,000||Ready, built for the games|
|Modern pentathlon (excluding fencing)|
|Saitama Super Arena||Basketball||22,000||Existing|
|Enoshima||Sailing||10,000||Existing with temporary stands|
|Makuhari Messe||Fencing||6,000||Existing with temporary stands|
|Baji Koen||Equestrian (dressage, jumping)||Existing with temporary stands|
|Kasumigaseki Country Club||Golf||30,000||Existing with temporary stands|
|Izu Velodrome||Track cycling||5,000||Existing, expanded|
|Izu Mountain Bike Course||Mountain biking|
|Fukushima Azuma Baseball Stadium||Baseball (opening match)||30,000||Existing, renovated|
|Softball (opening match) |
|Fuji International Speedway||Road cycling
(finish road races, time trial)
|International Stadium Yokohama||Yokohama||Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarter-final, Women's semi-final, Men's final||10||70,000||Existing|
|Tokyo Stadium||Tokyo||Men's and Women's opening round of preliminaries only||4||49,000||Existing|
|Saitama Stadium||Saitama||Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarter-final, Men's semi-final and 3rd place play-off||11||62,000||Existing|
|Miyagi Stadium||Sendai||Men's and Women's preliminaries and quarter-final||10||49,000||Existing|
|Kashima Soccer Stadium||Kashima||Men's and Women's preliminaries, quarter-final and semi-final, Women's 3rd place play-off||10||40,728||Existing|
|Sapporo Dome||Sapporo||Men's and Women's preliminaries||10||42,000||Existing|
|New National Stadium||Tokyo||Women's final||2||60,012||Under construction|
|Imperial Hotel, Tokyo||IOC|
|Harumi Futo||Olympic Village|
|Tokyo Big Sight||Media Press Center (MPC)|
|International Broadcast Center (IBC)|
Applications for volunteering at the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were accepted from 26 September 2018. By 18 January 2019, a total of 204,680 applications had been received by the organising committee. Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019 and training will take place in October 2019. The volunteers at the venues will be known as "Field Cast" and the volunteers in the city will be known as "City Cast"; these names were chosen from a shortlist of four from an original 149 pairs of names. The other shortlisted names were "Shining Blue" & "Shining Blue Tokyo", "Games Anchor" & "City Anchor", and "Games Force" & "City Force". The names were chosen by the people who had applied to be volunteers at the Games.
In February 2017, the Tokyo Organizing Committee announced an electronics recycling program in partnership with Japan Environmental Sanitation Center and NTT docomo, soliciting donations of electronics (such as mobile phones) to be reclaimed as materials for the medals. Aiming to collect 8 tonnes of metals to produce the medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, collection boxes were deployed at public locations and NTT docomo retail shops that April. A design competition for the medals launched in December 2017.
In May 2018, the organizing committee reported that they had obtained half the required 2,700 kilograms of bronze, but that they were struggling to obtain the required amount of silver: although silver and bronze medals purely utilize their respective materials, IOC requirements mandate that gold medals utilize silver as a base. The collection of bronze was completed in November 2018, with the remainder estimated to be complete by March 2019.
The opening ceremony tickets will range from 12,000 to 300,000 yen, with a maximum price of 130,000 yen for the finals of athletics. The average price of all the Olympic tickets is 7,700 yen. 50% of the tickets will be sold for 8,000 yen or less. A symbolic ticket price of 2,020 yen will be for families, groups resident in Japan and in conjunction with a school programme. Tickets will be sold through 40,000 shops in Japan and by mail order to Japanese addresses through the Internet. International guests will need to visit Japan during the sales period or arrange for tickets through a third party, such as a travel agent.
The official programme for the 2020 Summer Olympics was approved by the IOC executive board on 9 June 2017. The president of the IOC, Thomas Bach, stated that the goal for the Tokyo Games was to make them more "youthful" and "urban", and to increase the number of female participants.
The games will feature 339 events in 33 different sports, encompassing 50 disciplines. Alongside the five new sports that will be introduced in Tokyo, there will be fifteen new events within existing sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, and new mixed events in several sports.
In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.
- Archery (5)
- Athletics (48)
- Badminton (5)
- Baseball (1)
- Softball (1)
- Basketball (2)
- 3x3 basketball (2)
- Boxing (13)
- Slalom (4)
- Sprint (12)
- BMX freestyle (2)
- BMX racing (2)
- Mountain biking (2)
- Road cycling (4)
- Track cycling (12)
- Dressage (2)
- Eventing (2)
- Jumping (2)
- Fencing (12)
- Field hockey (2)
- Football (2)
- Golf (2)
- Artistic (14)
- Rhythmic (2)
- Trampoline (2)
- Handball (2)
- Judo (15)
- Kata (2)
- Kumite (6)
- Modern pentathlon (2)
- Rowing (14)
- Rugby sevens (2)
- Sailing (10)
- Shooting (15)
- Skateboarding (4)
- Sport climbing (2)
- Surfing (2)
- Table tennis (5)
- Taekwondo (8)
- Tennis (5)
- Triathlon (3)
- Volleyball (2)
- Beach volleyball (2)
- Weightlifting (14)
- Freestyle (12)
- Greco-Roman (6)
As part of a goal to control costs and ensure that the Olympics remain "relevant to sports fans of all generations", the IOC assessed the 26 sports contested at the 2012 Olympics, with the remit of dropping one sport and thus retaining 25 "core" sports to join new entrants golf and rugby sevens at the 2020 Games. This move would bring the total number of sports to 27, one less than the requirement of 28 for the 2020 Olympics programme, thus leaving a single vacancy which the IOC would seek to fill from a shortlist containing seven unrepresented sports as well as the sport that had been dropped from the 2012 Olympics programme.
On 12 February 2013, IOC leaders voted to drop wrestling from the "core" programme for the 2020 Games; this was a surprising decision considering that wrestling is one of the oldest Olympic sports, having been included since the ancient Olympic Games and included in the original programme for the modern Games. The New York Times felt that the decision was based on the shortage of well-known talent and the absence of women's events in the sport. Wrestling was duly added to the shortlist of applicants for inclusion in the 2020 Games, alongside the seven new sports that were put forward for consideration.
On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three sports had made the final shortlist: baseball/softball, squash and wrestling. The other five sports were excluded from consideration at this point: karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu. On 8 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session, the IOC selected wrestling to be included in the Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball and squash received 24 votes and 22 votes respectively.
Under new IOC policies that shift the Games to an "event-based" programme rather than sport-based, the host organizing committee can now also propose the addition of sports to the programme. This rule is designed so that sports popular in the host country can be added to the programme to improve local interest. As a result of these changes, a new shortlist of eight sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu. On 28 September 2015, organisers submitted their shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding. The five proposed sports were approved on 3 August 2016 by the IOC during the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and will be included in the sports programme for 2020 only, bringing the total number of sports at the 2020 Olympics to 33.
There will be 56 test events before the Olympic and Paralympic Games; they will be contested between June 2019 and June 2020, and will be completed before the start of the 2020 Summer Games. Several of the events are existing championships, but some will be newly created to serve as test events for the Olympics.
It was announced in February 2019 that the test events would be under the banner "Ready, Steady, Tokyo." The Tokyo Organising Committee is responsible for 22 of the test events, with the remaining events to be arranged by national and international organisations. The first test event is World Sailing's World Cup Series held at Enoshima, and the last event is set to be the Tokyo Challenge Track Meet in May 2020.
Participating National Olympic Committees
As of 19 August 2019[update], the following 108 NOCs are qualified.
Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee
As of 19 August 2019[update]:
The 2020 schedule by session was approved by the IOC Executive Board on 18 July 2018, with the exception of swimming, diving, and synchronized swimming. A more detailed schedule by event has been released on 16 April 2019, still omitting a detailed schedule for the boxing events.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Gold medal events||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Daily medal events||11||18||21||22||23||17||22||19||26||22||24||17||28||22||34||13||339|
Per the historical precedent of swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and figure skating at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, swimming finals will be held in the morning to allow live primetime broadcasts in the Americas (due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible; NBC agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on 7 May 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games, and is also one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC). Japanese broadcasters were said to have criticized the decision, as swimming is one of the most popular Olympic events in the country.
The official emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest, it takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan". The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of the Théâtre de Liège in Belgium. The Games' slogan is Discover Tomorrow (Japanese:
The official mascot of the 2020 Summer Olympics is Miraitowa, a figure with blue-checkered patterns inspired by the Games' official emblem. Its fictional characteristics include the ability to teleport. Created by Japanese artist Ryo Taniguchi, the mascots were selected from a competition process which took place in late 2017 and early 2018. A total of 2,042 candidate designs were submitted to the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee, which selected three pairs of unnamed mascot designs to present to Japanese elementary school students for the final decision. The results of the selection were announced on 28 February 2018, and the mascots were named on 22 July 2018. Miraitowa is named after the Japanese words for "future" and "eternity", and Someity is named after someiyoshino, a type of cherry blossom. Someity's name also references the English phrase "so mighty". The mascots are expected to help finance the Tokyo Games through merchandising and licensing deals.
Concerns and controversies
IAAF bribery claims
In January 2016, the second part of a World Anti-Doping Agency commission report into corruption included a footnote detailing a conversation between Khalil Diack, son of former International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) president Lamine Diack, and Turkish officials heading up the Istanbul bid team. A transcript of the conversation cited in the report suggested that a "sponsorship" payment of between US$4 million and 5 million had been made by the Japanese bid team "either to the Diamond League or IAAF". The footnote claimed that because Istanbul did not make such a payment, the bid lost the support of Lamine Diack. The WADA declined to investigate the claims because it was, according to its independent commission, outside the agency's remit.
In July and October 2013 (prior to and after being awarded the Games), Tokyo made two bank payments totalling SG$2.8 million to a Singapore-based company known as Black Tidings. The company is tied to Papa Massata Diack, a son of Lamine Diack who worked as a marketing consultant for the IAAF, and is being pursued by French authorities under allegations of bribery, corruption, and money laundering. Black Tidings is held by Ian Tan Tong Han, a consultant to Athletics Management and Services—which manages the IAAF's commercial rights, and has business relationships with Japanese firm Dentsu. Black Tidings has also been connected to a doping scandal involving the Russian athletics team.
Japanese Olympic Committee and Tokyo 2020 board member Tsunekazu Takeda stated that the payments were for consulting services, but refused to discuss the matter further because it was confidential. Toshiaki Endo called on Takeda to publicly discuss the matter. Massata denied that he had received any money from Tokyo's organizing committee. The IOC established a team to investigate these matters, and will closely follow the French investigation.
The initial design for the official emblems of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 July 2015. The logo resembled a stylized "T": a red circle in the top-right corner representing a beating heart, the flag of Japan, and an "inclusive world in which everyone accepts each other"; and a dark grey column in the centre representing diversity. The Paralympic emblem was an inverted version of the pattern made to resemble an equal sign.
Shortly after the unveiling, Belgian graphics designer Olivier Debie accused the organizing committee of plagiarizing a logo he had designed for the Théâtre de Liège, which aside from the circle, consisted of nearly identical shapes. Tokyo's organizing committee denied that the emblem design was plagiarized, arguing that the design had gone through "long, extensive and international" intellectual property examinations before it was cleared for use. Debie filed a lawsuit against the IOC to prevent use of the infringing logo.
The emblem's designer, Kenjirō Sano, defended the design, stating that he had never seen the Liège logo, while TOCOG released an early sketch of the design that emphasized a stylized "T" and did not resemble the Liège logo. However, Sano was found to have had a history of plagiarism, with others alleging his early design plagiarized work of Jan Tschichold, that he used a photo without permission in promotional materials for the emblem, along with other past cases. On 1 September 2015, following an emergency meeting of TOCOG, Governor of Tokyo Yōichi Masuzoe announced that they had decided to scrap Sano's two logos. The committee met on 2 September 2015 to decide how to approach another new logo design.
On 24 November 2015, an Emblems Selection Committee was established to organize an open call for design proposals, open to Japanese residents over the age of 18, with a deadline set for 7 December 2015. The winner would receive ¥1 million and tickets to the opening ceremonies of both the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. On 8 April 2016, a new shortlist of four pairs of designs for the Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled by the Emblems Selection Committee; the Committee's selection—with influence from a public poll—was presented to TOCOG on 25 April 2016 for final approval.
The new emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest, the emblem takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan".
In relation to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, which resulted in multiple nuclear meltdowns and an official Level 7 disaster, officials from W.H.O. and the United Nations have determined that the risks of dangerous exposure are minimal. Nevertheless, scientists and citizens alike remain skeptical. Former nuclear industry executive and whistleblower Arnold Gundersen and his institute, Fairewinds Associates, tested for the presence of radioactive dust on land scheduled to be used for certain events, including baseball, softball and the Olympic torch relay. At these facilities, the legally allowable radiation levels are higher than at other athletic facilities.. According to certain models, such as the National Academy of Sciences' "linear, no-threshold" model, small increases in radiation exposure may cause proportional health risks.
Liancourt Islands and Kuril Islands
The official website of the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic Games posted a map with the disputed Liancourt Islands and the Kuril Islands. South Korean Foreign Minister Kang Kyung-wha had requested the organizing committee of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics remove the islands due to controversies surrounding the Liancourt Islands' sovereignty. South Korea controls the islands but its sovereignty over them is contested by Japan. Elsewhere in Asia, Russian Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman Maria Zakharova had also requested the organizing committee of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics remove the disputed Kuril Islands due to controversies surrounding the islands' sovereignty.
Sony and Panasonic are partnering with NHK to develop broadcasting standards for 8K resolution television, with a goal to release 8K television sets in time for the 2020 Olympics. Italian broadcaster RAI announced an intent to deploy 8K broadcasting for the Games.
In Europe, this will be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC's exclusive pan-European rights deal with Eurosport, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics and run through 2024. The rights for the 2020 Games cover almost all of Europe, excluding France due to an existing rights deal that will expire following these Games in favour of Eurosport, and Russia due to a pre-existing deal with a marketer through 2024. Eurosport will sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory and other Discovery Inc.-owned channels. In the United Kingdom, these will be the last Games whose rights are primarily owned by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement that will carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Eurosport holds exclusive pay television rights.
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