Continuismo (English: Continuism) is the practice by incumbents of keeping themselves in office beyond the legal term. Some Latin American heads of state indefinitely extend their rule by way of reducing or abolishing term limits, via constitutional revision. Examples are (Juan Perón, Argentina; Alfredo Stroessner, Paraguay; Evo Morales, Bolivia). Another tactic is legislative enactment, such as with (Jorge Ubico, Guatemala in 1941). A third tactic is by plebiscite (Carlos Castillo Armas, Guatemala ) and Marcos Pérez Jiménez ,Venezuela, 1958)) and the 1988 failed attempt by Augusto Pinochet in Chile. A further type is internal coup (Getulio Vargas, Brazil). Yet another way is the imposition of a weak successor candidate allowing rule by the outgoing incumbent (Emilio Portes Gil and Abelardo Rodríguez in Mexico allowing Plutarco Elías Calles, "el jefe máximo", to continue ruling, a period known as the Maximato). The extension of family rule occurred in Nicaragua with the Somoza family; in Argentina with Juan Perón; and then more recently Nestor Kirchner and his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner; and in Cuba with Fidel Castro and his brother Raúl Castro. Despite Peru's one term limit established by its 1979 constitution, Alberto Fujimori illegally extended his rule to ten years through two re-elections.
- "Continuismo" in Latin American Political Dictionary, edited by Ernest E. Rossi and Jack C. Plano. (1980)
- Ebel, Roland H. "Continuismo" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 2, p. 257. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
- Fitzgibbon, Russell H. "Continuismo" in Central America and the Caribbean," Inter-American Quarterly 2 (July 1940): 56-74/
- Roland H. Ebel. "Continuismo" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 2, p. 257. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
- Conaghan, Catherine M. (2006). Fujimori's Peru. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5943-7. page 8
- Russell F. Fitzgibbon, "Continuismo: The Search for Political Longevity" in Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America, Hugh M. Hamill, ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1992, p. 211.
- Ebel, "Continuismo" p. 257.