Machiavellianism in the workplace
Machiavellianism in the workplace refers to a personality trait where individuals behave in a cold and duplicitous manner in business settings. The term Machiavellianism is a psychological concept named after the philosophy by Machiavelli which describes various deceptive behaviors. Machiavellianism has been studied extensively over the past 40 years as a personality characteristic that shares features with manipulative leadership tactics. It has in recent times been adapted and applied to the context of the workplace and organizations by many writers and academics.
A new model of Machiavellianism based in organizational settings consists of three factors:
- maintaining power
- harsh management tactics
- manipulative behaviors.
Machiavellians are very charismatic, and their leadership can be beneficial in some areas.
Individuals who are high in Machiavellianism may be more willing and more skilled at lying and less likely to give honest answers during interviews. Individuals high in Machiavellianism have stronger intentions to use deception in interviews compared to psychopaths or narcissists and are also more likely to see the use of lying in interviews as fair. Men and women high in Machiavellianism may use different tactics to influence interviewers. In one study, which examined the how much applicants allowed the interviewers to direct the topics covered during the interview, women high in Machiavellianism tended to allow interviewers more freedom to direct the content of the interview. Men high in Machiavellianism gave interviewers the least amount of freedom in directing the content of the interview. Men high in Machiavellianism were also more likely to make up information about themselves or their experiences during job interviews.
Workplace bullying overlap
The following are the guiding principles of Machiavellianism:
- Never show humility
- Arrogance is far more effective when dealing with others.
- Morality and ethics are for the weak: Powerful people feel free to lie, cheat and deceive others when it suits them.
- It is much better to be feared than loved.
High Machiavellians may be expected to do the following:
- Neglect to share important information.
- Find subtle ways of making another person look bad to management.
- Fail to meet their obligations.
- Spread false rumors about another person.
In studies there was a positive correlation between Machiavellianism and workplace bullying. Machiavellianism predicted involvement in bullying others. The groups of bullies and bully-victims had a higher Machiavellianism level compared to the groups of victims and persons non-involved in bullying. The results showed that being bullied was negatively related to the perceptions of clan and adhocracy cultures and positively related to the perceptions of hierarchy culture.
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