Correctional nursing, sometimes called forensic nursing, is a specialized field of nursing that involves caring for the medical and mental health needs of detainees and inmates. These nurses work in a variety of settings such as jails, prisons, and juvenile detention centers. In these correctional settings, nurses are the primary healthcare providers.
Because of the varying size of correctional facilities, there is a wide range of roles correctional nurses fill.. Some facilities are as large as small cities and include an in-house hospital with inpatient and emergency facilities. Most correctional nurses fall into four categories: Reception Screening, Chronic Care Clinicians, Medication Administration, and Ambulatory Care (often called, "sick call").
Intake Screening is often called, "R&R Screening" for, "Reception and Release". This is the process where nurses screen inmates entering the facility for a variety of immediate medical and mental health needs such as alcohol or drug withdrawal, suicide potential, trauma, infectious diseases, and necessity for chronic medications. Custody uses this information in order to decide which part of the facility is appropriate for housing, sometimes initiating movement to another facility if the inmate's needs cannot be met at the initial placement. The nurse performing intake screening generally schedules the inmate for an appointment with a healthcare provider for a detailed history and physical depending on the inmate's needs and presence of chronic diseases.
Chronic Care Clinicians
Inmates with chronic health care concerns (asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure, etc.) generally have regularly scheduled appointments in chronic care clinics. Generally overseen by a physician or other mid level provider such as a nurse practitioner. Nurses here provide patient assessments and education about chronic health concerns.
Medications, even over-the-counter ones, can be misused in a correctional environment. Most frequently, medications are be administered to patients via a medication pass or pill line process. At scheduled times during the day, inmates requiring medication either report to a nurse located centrally in a medical unit or receive their doses in a housing unit.
Nursing Sick Call
Inmates requiring episodic health care generally follow a process called Sick Call. Inmates request treatment, generally by completing a form (a "Sick Call Slip") and are seen by a nurse. Most facilities have standardized protocols which allow administration of over-the-counter medications for simple conditions like headache, athlete’s foot, and constipation without the need for communication with a medical provider. An assessment of a more serious condition, or one that falls outside the protocols, would be referred to a provider for further evaluation.
- "Correctional Nursing - International Association of Forensic Nurses". www.forensicnurses.org. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- Almost, Joan; Gifford, Wendy A; Doran, Diane; Ogilvie, Linda; Miller, Crystal; Rose, Don N; Squires, Mae (21 June 2013). "Correctional nursing: a study protocol to develop an educational intervention to optimize nursing practice in a unique context". Implementation Science : IS. 8: 71. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-8-71. ISSN 1748-5908. PMC 3691633. PMID 23799894.
- "Nursing Careers with California Correctional Health Care Services, Apply Online". www.cphcs.ca.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2018.