|Elevation||950 m (3,115 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
Dülük (Armenian: Տլուք, romanized: Tlukʿ) is a village in Şehitkamil district, a district of Greater Gaziantep, Turkey. At , it is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Gaziantep city center. The population of Dülük was 2,256 as of 2012. As ancient Doliche (Greek: Δολίχη), a former bishopric, it remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
During the Hittite period, it was a stop on the road connecting the Mediterranean to Mesopotamia. It was also a religious center. The sanctuary of the Hittite god Teshub was just to the north of the village.
In the literary sources, the existence of the hellenistic colony is not attested before the 2nd century BC. It is speculated that part of the original colonial population of Doliche came from the homonymous Thessalian city. The discovery of Rhodean amphorea handles suggest communications with the Aegean Sea during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Seleucids adopted the worship of the local storm-god as Zeus Dolichenus, identified with Baal. At this time it was a small city on the road from Germanicia to Zeugma.
Doliche was at one time considered to belong to the ancient region of Cyrrhestica. It was ruled by the Kingdom of Commagene "for about 35 years"; after being governed by Antiochus Theos, it might have been incorporated into the Roman province of Syria as early as 31 BCE.
Commagene was definitively annexed to the Roman Empire in 72 CE. It was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria, Under Roman rule, Doliche remained part of the region of Commagene, a region of the Roman province of Syria, and as that was portioned of the provinces Coele-Syria and ultimately of Syria Euphratensis.
The worship of Jupiter Dolichenus became widespread from the mid-second to the mid-third century CE, particularly though not exclusively in the Roman army. A number of religious monuments of Jupiter Dolichenus refer to him as the "god of the Commagenians".
Doliche struck its own coins from the reign of Marcus Aurelius to Caracalla. Archaeological finds in Doliche include an underground Mithraic temple, rock graves and stone quarries from which giant rock blocks are produced.
In 2014, a team of German archaeologists from the University of Münster announced the excavation of a relief depicting an Iron Age deity previously unknown to them on a stele among the remains of Mar Solomon, a medieval monastery uncovered during 2010 excavations in Doliche. The monastery had been known only through writings indicating that it had been used through the era of the crusades. The University of Münster's Asia Minor Research Centre has been conducting excavation work at the main sanctuary of Jupiter Dolichenus under the direction of Engelbert Winter and Michael Blömer and is supported by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft, DFG). The international group consists of archaeologists, historians, architects, conservators, archaeozoologists, geoinformation scientists, and excavation workers. Winter's field work at the sanctuary dates back to 2001.
The town, of strategic importance due to its location at the intersection of roads linking the major cities of the region, was conquered by Iyad ibn Ghanm during the first decades of the Muslim conquests. It hence became a frontier outpost of the nascent Islamic Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire, forming part of the fortified frontier zone (al-'Awasim) after the reign of Harun al-Rashid.
In the middle of the 10th century, it played a role in the conflict between resurgent Byzantium and the Hamdanid emirate of Sayf al-Dawla, and was retaken by the Byzantines in 962. The town again became a battleground during the Crusades until it was definitely captured by atabeg Nur al-Din of Aleppo in 1155; by that time, it had declined to obscurity, its fortress in ruins and the once prosperous town reduced to a small village.
During the Crusades, the town was called Tulupa, and part of the Crusader County of Edessa.
The names of eight of its Byzantine bishops are known :
- Archelaus, present at the First Council of Nicaea (325), and at the Synod of Antioch (341)
- Olympius attended the schismatical synod of Philippopolis held in 347 by Arian bishops opposing the decision sof the canonical Council of Serdica (344)
- Cyrion at the Council of Seleucia (359)
- Maris, during whose consecration circa 330 an Arian woman fatally stabbed Eusebius of Samosata, a bitter adversary of that heresy; he attended the First Council of Constantinople (381)
- Abibus, a Nestorian, too old in 431 to attend the Council of Ephesus, which deposed him as heretic in 434
- Athanasius, his successor elected by the council
- Timothy, a correspondent of Theodoret, present at the Robber Council of Ephesus, at a Synod of Antioch in 450 on the orthodoxy of Athanasius of Perra and at the Council of Chalcedon (451); in 457 he signed the decreto of Patriarch Gennadius I of Constantinople against simony
- Philoxenus, a nephew of the celebrated Philoxenus of Hierapolis, deposed as a Severian Encratite in 518 for Monophysitism, reinstated in 533 after recanting that heresy in Constantinople
It is vacant, having had the following incumbents, so far of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank :
- John Stafford (1772.12.14 – ?death) as Coadjutor Bishop of Ferns (Ireland) (1772.12.14 – ?)
- Nicolas Champenois, Paris Foreign Missions Society (M.E.P.) (born France) (1785.06.14 – death 1811.10.30) first as Coadjutor Superior of Coromandel Coast (India) (1785.06.14 – 1791.11.08), then succeeding as Ecclesiastical Superior of Mission sui iuris of Coromandel Coast (British India) (1791.11.08 – 1811.10.30)
- Calixto Castrillo Ornedo (1861.12.23 – 1863.10.01) as Auxiliary Bishop of Archdiocese of Sevilla (Spain) (1861.12.23 – 1863.10.01); next Bishop of León (Spain) (1863.10.01 – death 1869.09.17)
- Jean-Dominique Barbero, Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions (M.E.M.) (born Italy) (1870.01.21 – 1881.10.18) as Apostolic Vicar of Hyderabad (British India) (1870.01.18 – 1881.10.18)
- Bishop-elect François-Marie Trégaro (1881.11.18 – 1881.12.01) as Coadjutor Bishop of Séez (France) ([1881.09.27] 1881.11.18 – 1881.12.01); next succeeded as Bishop of Séez (1881.12.01 – 1897.01.06)
- BIOS TO ELABORATE
- Miguel Saturnino Aurrecoechea Palacios, Capuchin Franciscans (O.F.M. Cap.) (1955.12.19 – 1997.09.08)
- Yves-Joseph-Marie Plumey, Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.) (later Archbishop) (1953.03.24 – 1955.09.14)
- Pierre-Marie-Joseph Puech (1947.06.07 – 1952.03.18)
- Johannes Michael Buckx, Dehonians (S.C.I.) (1923.05.23 – 1946.09.22)
- Alberto Bitter (later Archbishop) (1893.06.15 – 1922.10.09)
- Francesco Gandolfi (1882.01.24 – 1892.02.22)
- Statistical Institute[permanent dead link]
- Ministry of Culture and Tourism page (in Turkish)
- Getzel_M._Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea and Africa, California University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-520-24148-7, p. 156.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, 1911, s.v. Aintab, p. 441.
- Michael Blömer; Engelbert Winter (2011). Commagene: The Land of the Gods between the Taurus and the Euphrates. Homer Kitabevi. p. 19. ISBN 978-9944-483-35-3.
- Fergus Millar (1993). The Roman Near East, 31 BC – AD 337. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 453. ISBN 0-674-77885-5.
- Ewald, Heinrich (1886). The history of Israel, Volume 8. Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 23.
- Michael Speidel (1978). The Religion of Jupiter Dolichenus in the Roman Army. Leiden: Brill.
- CIL III, 07834; CIL III, 07832; AE 1988, 00962.
- Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907-1912
- Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists, §2.26.1
- Cluster of Excellence, Unique Roman relief discovered: Depiction of unknown god in Turkey; Relics from 2,000 years of cult history excavated, ScienceDaily, 10 November 2014. (with image of the deity)
- Sourdel, Dominique (1991). "Dulūk". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G. Leiden and New York: BRILL. p. 624. ISBN 90-04-07026-5.
- Brooks, The Sixth Book of Select Letters of Severus, London, 1904, II, 89, 90, 345-350, 352)
- Lequien (Or. Christ., II, 937)
- ed. Parthey
- Vailhe, in Échos d'Orient, X, 94 sqq. and 367 sqq.)
- "Revue de l'Orient chretien", VI, 195
- Bibliography - ecclesiastical history
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 436
- Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, vol. II, coll. 937-940
- Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 3, p. 187; vol. 6, p. 198
- Franz Cumont, Etudes syriennes, Paris 1917, pp. 173 seq.
- Raymond Janin, lemma 'Doliché', in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIV, Paris 1960, coll. 578-580