Dhimalish languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Dhimalish
Geographic
distribution
India, Nepal
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
Glottologdhim1245[1]

The Dhimalish languages, Dhimal and Toto, are a small group of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and the Jalpaiguri division of West Bengal, India.

Classification[edit]

Hammarström, et al.[2] note in Glottolog that Dhimalish is best considered to be a separate Sino-Tibetan branch rather than as a subgroup of Brahmaputran (Sal), and consider Dhimalish as failing to show sufficient Brahmaputran diagnostic vocabulary. Sotrug (2015)[3] considers Dhimalish to be particularly closely related to the Kiranti languages rather than to the Sal languages.

Grollmann & Gerber (2017)[4] consider Lhokpu to have a particularly close relationship with Dhimal and Toto.

Comparative vocabulary[edit]

Sanyal (1973:77-81) provides a comparative word list of Toto from Sunder (1895)[5] and George Abraham Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India,[6] and Dhimal from Brian Houghton Hodgson.[7][8]

English gloss Toto (Sunder) Toto (Grierson) Dhimal (Hodgson) Page no.
air bingah - - 77
ass - pangbu - 77
brother eh apu; e yolla 77
belly - pa-ma hemang 77
back - ju-ma gandi 77
brinjal bengini - - 77
bird - bakhi jiha 77
behind - no - 77
blood viti - - 77
beat - sapu - 77
before - dongangta - 77
bullock pekah-dambe - - 77
cat minki minki dankha-menko 77
cock odangpa keka dhangai-kai 77
come quickly to-to-wa-wang le-le dhi-dhi 77
cow - pika mahani-pia 77
daughter memi-cheng chai-me chamdi 77
devil - jishang - 77
duck hangsa hangsa hangs 77
die - sipuna sili 77
dog kia kia khia 77
down - lijuing - 77
door lafoong - duar 77
eat - char chabi 77
eye michu - mi 77
eyebrow mimu - - 77
elephant hati - - 77
elder sister anna - - 77
evening jilong - - 78
ear nanoong - naha-thong 78
far - hinda-mina - 78
fire meh megue mau 78
forehead ting-ang - - 78
foot tang-ba - kokoi 78
father appa apa aba 78
of father - apak - 78
two fathers - apa-nisa - 78
fish ngya - - 78
fever haina - - 78
good - entana - 78
give - picha - 78
girl chame - - 78
god - iswal - 78
go north enta-vatu - - 78
go east nuta-vatu - - 78
go south leta-vatu - - 78
go west dita-vatu - - 78
go vatu; hatu chhapur hadeli 78
hair puring puring poshom 78
he - - wa 78
he-goat edang - - 78
horse onyah aia - 78
high - hinda-nina - 78
hand kooe kui khur 78
his uko - oko, wang 78
head pudung pudang purin 78
house - sa sa 78
I kug-ve kate ka 78
iron - chaka chir 78
jackfruit dangse - - 79
jungle bamboo - - - 79
lips megoe - - 79
leg kok-koi - khokoi 79
lime churai - - 79
man - deya waved 79
mother aeu aio amma 79
mouth noohgung - - 79
monkey nokka - - 79
milk yoti - - 79
moon tari tari tali 79
morning habkong - - 79
nose nabboh - - 79
nails kushing - - 79
near - abeto - 79
night lishong - - 79
no - ma-koe - 79
orange santra - - 79
our kongo - king 79
pig pakka - - 79
pan leaf parai - - 79
plantain eungpi - - 79
plantain tree eungpi - - 79
paddy mabe - - 79
river tihana - - 79
rain vathi - - 79
rice unku - - 79
rice-beer eu - - 79
run - tui - 79
rupee tanka - - 79
sister - ing rima 79
sun sani chhani bela 79
son chung chao, chaoa chau 79
stand - lo-lo - 79
star puima - - 79
salt ngi - - 80
sit - iyung yongli 80
tiger koogah - - 80
thigh vybe - - 80
thou - na-ga - 80
tree singe - - 80
tooth shitang - sitong 80
tongue lebek - detong 80
up - jujuntaye - 80
water ti ti chi 80
we - na-te kyel 80
woman - mem-bi beval 80
wife - me be 80
who - ha jeti-siti 80
why - ha-ranga haipali 80
younger sister ing - - 80
yes - ke he 80
you naga - nye 80
1 eoo che e-long 80
2 nih-hu ne gne-long 80
3 soongu sung sum-long 80
4 diu ji dia-long 80
5 ngyu nga na-long 80
6 tuu tu tu-long 80
7 niu dun nhu-long 80
8 yau ge, ne ye-long 80
9 kuu gu kuha-long 80
10 thau chu-tamba te-long 80
20 chuniso nisa e-long-bisha 81
100 nakai nga-kai na-long-bisha 81

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Dhimalish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/kena1236
  3. ^ Sotrug, Yeshy T. (2015). Linguistic evidence for madeskā kirãntī. The phylogenetic position of Dhimalish. Bern: University of Bern Master’s Thesis, 22 June 2015.
  4. ^ Grollmann, Selin and Pascal Gerber. 2017. Linguistic evidence for a closer relationship between Lhokpu and Dhimal: Including some remarks on the Dhimalish subgroup. Bern: University of Bern.
  5. ^ Sunder, D. H. E. 1895. Survey and Settlement of Western Duars in the District of Jalpaiguri, 1889-1895.
  6. ^ Grierson, George A. 1909. Linguistic Survey of India (Vol. III, Part I, Tibeto-Burman Family: Tibetan Dialects, the Himalayan Dialects and the North Assam Group). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
  7. ^ Hodgson, Brian. 1874. Essays on the Languages, Literatures, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet. London: Truebner and Co.
  8. ^ Hodgson, Brian Houghton. 1880. Miscellaneous Essays relating to Indian Subjects (2 vols.). London: Trübner & Co.
  • George van Driem (2001) Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill, Boston (Available at https://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114099398 Accessed 1 March 2011).
  • Sanyal, Charu Chandra. 1973. "The Totos: A sub-Himalayan tribe." In The Meches and the Totos, 1-81. Darjeeling: University of North Bengal.