Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik (Ukrainian: Дніпропетровський супутник; Russian: Днепропетровский Спутник), also known as DS, was a series of satellites launched by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1982. DS satellites were used for a number of missions, including technological and scientific research, and radar tracking targets for anti-satellite weapons and anti-ballistic missiles. 185 were launched, using dedicated Kosmos rockets. The first DS satellite, DS-1 No.1, was launched on the maiden flight of the Kosmos-2I 63S1 rocket on 27 October 1961. It failed to reach orbit after an acceleration integrator malfunctioned. A second launch attempt, with DS-1 No.2, failed due to a second stage malfunction. The third satellite, as DS-2, successfully reached orbit and was subsequently assigned the designation Kosmos 1, becoming the first satellite to be designated under the Kosmos system. Kosmos designations were assigned to all DS satellites, except those that failed to reach orbit, and a small number which were launched as part of the Interkosmos and Oreol programmes.
- Wade, Mark. "DS". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- Wade, Mark. "DS-P1-M". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- Wade, Mark. "Kosmos 3". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
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