Duke of York and Albany

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Duke of York and Albany
Coat of Arms of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany.svg
StyleHis Royal Highness
Sir
AppointerMonarch of Great Britain
Term lengthLife tenure or until accession as Sovereign
Inaugural holderPrince Ernest Augustus
Formation1716

Duke of York and Albany was a title of nobility in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was created three times during the 18th century and was usually given to the second son of British monarchs. The predecessor titles in the English and Scottish peerages were Duke of York and Duke of Albany.

History[edit]

The individual dukedoms of York and of Albany had previously each been created several times in the Peerages of England and of Scotland respectively. Each had become a traditional title for the second son of the monarch, and had become united (but separately awarded) in the House of Stuart.

During the 18th century, the double dukedom of York and Albany was created three times in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without issue.

The second creation of the Dukedom of York and Albany was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III. He also died without issue, having never married. The third and last creation of the Dukedom of York and Albany was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, and he was the original "grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He died without legitimate issue.

Each time that the Dukedom of York and Albany was created, it had only one occupant, with that person dying without legitimate issue.

Queen Victoria granted the title Duke of Albany (single geographic designation) in 1881 to her fourth son, Prince Leopold, and the title Duke of York (single geographic designation) in 1892 to her eldest son's second (but by then eldest living) son, Prince George.

Dukes of York and Albany[edit]

First creation, 1716–1728[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Prince Ernest Augustus
House of Hanover
1716–1728[1]
also: Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück (1715–1728), Earl of Ulster (1716)
Prince Ernest Augustus 7 September 1674
Osnabrück
son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of the Palatinate
never married 14 August 1728
Osnabrück
aged 53
Prince Ernest was the younger brother of George I and died without issue.

Second creation, 1760–1767[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Prince Edward
House of Hanover
1760–1767[2]
also: Earl of Ulster (1760)
Prince Edward 25 March 1739
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
never married 17 September 1767
Prince's Palace of Monaco
aged 28
Rather than the second son of the sovereign, Prince Edward was the second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the younger brother of George III. He died without issue at age 28, after a short illness.

Third creation, 1784–1827[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
The Prince Frederick
House of Hanover
1784–1827[3]
also: Earl of Ulster (1784)
Prince Frederick 16 August 1763
St. James's Palace
son of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Frederica Charlotte of Prussia
29 September 1791
No children
5 January 1827
Rutland House
aged 63
Prince Frederick separated from his only wife Frederica Charlotte (with whom he had no children) but was rumoured to have fathered several illegitimate children.

Family tree[edit]

Family tree: Dukes of York and Albany
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King James VI & I
(1566–r.1603–1625)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1604
DUKE OF YORK, 1605
 
 
Princess Elizabeth Stuart
(1596–1662)
m. Frederick V of the Palatinate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prince Charles,
Duke of York, Duke of Albany

King Charles I
(1600–r.1625–1649)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF YORK, 1644
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1660
 
 
Sophia of Hanover
(1630–1714)
m. Ernest Augustus of Brunswick
 
 
 
King Charles II
(1630–r.1660–1685)
 
Prince James,
Duke of York, Duke of Albany

King James II
(1633–1701, r.1685–1688)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1716
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King George I
(1660–r.1714–1727)
 
Ernest Augustus,
Duke of York and Albany

(1674–1728)
 
 
Queen Mary II
(1662–r.1689–1694)
 
Queen Anne
(1665–r.1702–1714)
 
 
 
King George II
(1683–r.1727–1760)
 
 
 
Prince Frederick Louis,
Prince of Wales

(1707–1751)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1760
King George III
(1738–r.1760–1820)
 
Prince Edward,
Duke of York and Albany

(1739–1767)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1784
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King George IV
(1762–r.1820–1830)
 
Prince Frederick,
Duke of York and Albany

(1763–1827)
 
King William IV
(1765–r.1830–1837)
 
Prince Edward,
Duke of Kent

(1767–1820)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Queen Victoria
(1819–r.1837–1901)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kilburn, Matthew (May 2005) [2004]. "Ernest Augustus, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1674–1728)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8839.
  2. ^ Yvonne's Royalty: Peerage. Mypage.uniserve.ca. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
  3. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty: Peerage". Retrieved 21 April 2012.