Economic and monetary union

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An economic and monetary union (EMU) is a type of trade bloc composed of an economic union (common market and customs union) and a monetary union.

An EMU is established through a currency-related trade pact and the sixth stage of economic integration, in other words it combines a customs union with a common market. An intermediate step between a pure EMU and a complete economic integration is the fiscal union. An EMU is distinguished from a mere monetary union (e.g. the Latin Monetary Union in the 19th century), which does not involve a common market.

Additionally, the autonomous and dependent territories, such as some of the EU member state special territories, are sometimes treated as separate customs territory from their mainland state or have varying arrangements of formal or de facto customs union, common market and currency union (or combinations thereof) with the mainland and in regards to third countries through the trade pacts signed by the mainland state.[1]

History and the First Step[edit]

The first talks regarding the creation of some form of union occurred in 1969 at the summit in the Hague. As a result of these talks, a draft plan was announced by the heads of various member states, as well as main member Pierre Werner, Prime Minister of Luxembourg.

The decision to form the EMU was accepted in December 1991 and later became part of the Maastricht Treaty (the Treaty on European Union).[2]

The Processes in the EMU and Their Work[3][edit]

The EMU Involves Four Main Activities[edit]

  1. Implementing an effective monetary policy for the euro area with the objective of price stability - there is a group of economists who have only one role to study how to improve the monetary policy and the price stability. They have to make researches and their results introduce to leaders of the EMU. Then the role of the leaders is to find an appropriate way how to implement their work into each states policy. To object the price stability is the long-term goal of all states in the EMU because of the future view of one currency the EURO.
  2. Coordinating economic and fiscal policies in EU countries - the role of the EMU at this point is to find the equilibrium between the monetary and the fiscal policies. They tried to advice whether it is more efficient to use greater coordination even if it is tightly coupled with looser money and tighter fiscal policy or to non-coordinate the monetary market and have a risk of unpredictable situation. They have to deliberate also the option of mixed policy which, like it was shown in some empirical studies, can have more benefits that is generaly expected.[4]
  3. Ensuring the single market runs smoothly - the main conditions of the third point is that all member countries will respect the decisions made by EMU and also by their own steps will be act in favor of stable market[5]
  4. Supervising and monitoring financial institutions - as the point above said, there is a strict need of acting in a unit way for all members of EMU. Therefore the EMU has to have the institutions which will supervised all of the member states and will protect the main aim of EMU

The Role of the National Governments[edit]

  1. Control fiscal policy that concerns government budgets
  2. Control tax policies that determine how income is raised
  3. Control structural policies that determine pension systems, labor- and capital-market regulations

List of Economic and Monetary Unions[edit]


Community Currency Region Target date Notes
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) Central African CFA franc Africa not yet functioning common market
West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) West African CFA franc Africa not yet functioning common market
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Khaleeji Middle East Possibly gold backed, but postponed due to the financial crisis.
East African Community (EAC) East African shilling Africa 2015 To be used by the future East African Federation
Caribbean Single Market and Economy (as part of the CARICOM) Latin America
2015 To supplement the OECS Eastern Caribbean Currency Union
Southern African Customs Union (SACU) South African Rand Africa 2015 de facto for the CMA member when the SADC economic union is established
Southern African Development Community (SADC) South African Rand
(interim proposal)
Africa 2016 To supplement or succeed the CMA and Southern Africa Customs Union
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation South Asia 2016[citation needed]
Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) Latino[8] Latin America
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) Africa To supplement the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Africa 2020 To succeed UEMOA and WAMZ
African Economic Community Africa 2028 See African Monetary Union
Union State of Russia and Belarus Russian ruble Europe
Arab League Arab Dinar Arab states Arab Dinar has been proposed ever since the creation of the Arab Monetary Fund, expected for serious plans of doing so, after the creation of the proposed Arab Union.
Eurasian Economic Union Altyn Eurasia 2025 Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev had first proposed, in 2009, the creation of a common noncash currency called "yevraz" for the Eurasian Economic Community. It would have reportedly helped insulate the countries from the global economic crisis.[9] In 2012, the idea of the new joint currency found support from Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev and by 2014 proposals were drafted in Eurasian Commission documents for the establishment of a Eurasian Central Bank and a common currency to be called the altyn which is to be introduced by 2025.[10]


Stages of economic integration around the World (each country colored according to the most integrated form that it participates with):
  Economic and monetary union (CSME/EC$, EU/, Switzerland–Liechtenstein/CHF)
  Common market (EEA–Switzerland, ASEAN[dubious ])

See also[edit]


  1. ^ EU Overseas countries and some other territories participate partially in the EU single market per part four of the Treaty Establishing the European Community; Some EU Outermost regions and other territories use the Euro of the currency union, others are part of the customs union; some participate in both unions and some in neither.
    Territories of the United States, Australian External Territories and Realm of New Zealand territories share the currency and mostly also the market of their respective mainland state, but are generally not part of its customs territory.
  2. ^ "What is the Economic and Monetary Union? (EMU)". European Commission - European Commission. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  3. ^ "How the Economic and Monetary Union works". European Commission - European Commission. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  4. ^ Blinder, Alan (September 1982). "Issues in the Coordination of Monetary and Fiscal Policy". Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^ "The EU and economic and monetary union". Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  6. ^ The states participating in both initiatives are Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  7. ^ Single market through participation in the internal market of the European Union, customs union since 1924, informal currency union since 1920.
  8. ^ Proposed by Ecuador's President Rafael Correa on December 15, 2007
  9. ^ "Kazakhstan Suggests a New Currency - News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  10. ^ "Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus to have new joint currency". Retrieved 8 July 2014.
  11. ^ Not currently on any political agenda, based mostly off conspiracy theories.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]