|Hubs||Ben Gurion Airport|
|Company slogan||It's not just an airline. It's Israel.|
הכי בבית בעולם
Literally: "The most at home in the world"
Casually: "Your home in the sky"
El Al translation: "Home Away From Home"
|Traded as||TASE: ELAL|
|Headquarters||Ben Gurion Airport, Israel|
|Key people||Amikam Cohen, Chairman |
Gonen Usishkin, CEO
El Al Israel Airlines Ltd. (TASE: ELAL), trading as El Al (Hebrew: אל על, "To the Skies" or "Skywards", Arabic: إل-عال), is the flag carrier of Israel. Since its inaugural flight from Geneva to Tel Aviv in September 1948, the airline has grown to serve over 50 destinations, operating scheduled domestic and international services and cargo flights within Israel, and to Europe, Middle East, Americas, Africa, and the Far East, from its main base in Ben Gurion Airport.
El Al is the only commercial airline to equip its planes with missile defense systems to protect its planes against surface-to-air missiles, and is considered one of the world's most secure airlines, thanks to its stringent security procedures, both on the ground and on board its aircraft. Although it has been the target of many attempted hijackings and terror attacks, only one El Al flight has ever been hijacked; that incident did not result in any fatalities.
As Israel's national airline, El Al has played an important role in humanitarian rescue efforts, airlifting Jews from other countries to Israel, setting the world record for the most passengers on a commercial aircraft (single plane record of 1,088 passengers on a 747) by Operation Solomon when 14,500 Jewish refugees were transported from Ethiopia in 1991.
In 2012, El Al operated an all-Boeing fleet of 42 aircraft, flying over 4 million passengers, and employed a staff of 6,056 globally. The company's revenues for 2016 were $2.04 billion, totalling losses of $80.7 million compared to a profit of $57 million in 2010.
- 1 History
- 2 Company affairs and identity
- 3 Subsidiaries
- 4 Security
- 5 Controversies
- 6 Destinations
- 7 Fleet
- 8 Services
- 9 Accidents and incidents
- 10 Notable El Al employees
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
In September 1948, Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, attended a conference in Geneva, Switzerland. Weizmann was scheduled to fly back to Israel in an Israeli government aircraft, but due to an embargo imposed on Israel at the time, this was not possible. An Israeli C-54 military transport aircraft was instead converted into a civilian plane to transport Weizmann home. The aircraft was painted with the logo of the "El Al/Israel National Aviation Company" and fitted with extra fuel tanks to enable a non-stop flight from Geneva to Israel. It departed from Ekron Air Base on 28 September, and returned to Israel the next day. After the flight, the aircraft was repainted and returned to military use.
The airline was incorporated and became Israel's national flag carrier on 15 November 1948, although it used leased aircraft until February 1949, when two unpressurized DC-4s were purchased from American Airlines. The acquisition was funded by the government of Israel, the Jewish Agency, and other Jewish organizations. The first plane arrived at Lod Airport (later renamed Ben Gurion) on 3 April 1949. Aryeh Pincus, a lawyer from South Africa, was elected head of the company. The first international flight, from Tel Aviv to Paris, with a refueling in Rome, took place on 31 July 1949. By the end of 1949, the airline had flown passengers to London and Johannesburg. A regular service to London was inaugurated in the middle of 1950. Later that year, El Al acquired Universal Airways, which was owned by South African Zionists. A state-run domestic airline, Israel Inland Airlines, was founded in which El Al had a 50% stake.[when?]
El Al's cargo service was inaugurated in 1950 and initially relied on military surplus Curtiss C-46 Commando aircraft. The same aircraft type was used also for passengers transportation in certain routes. The same year the airline initiated charter services to the United States, followed by scheduled flights soon afterwards.
From its earliest days the operation of the airline in keeping with Jewish tradition has been a source of friction; when the Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion was forming his first coalition, the religious parties would not join unless Ben-Gurion promised that El Al would serve only kosher food on its flights and would not fly on the Jewish Sabbath.
In 1950–1951 El Al expanded its activities in Europe and added new destinations such as Vienna and Istanbul, Athens and Nicosia. On July 31 of 1950 the company celebrated first anniversary of its regular flights program.
The airline was involved in several covert operations: In the early 1950s, El Al airlifted over 160,000 immigrants to Israel from India, Iran, Iraq and Yemen as part of Operation Magic Carpet and Operation Ezra and Nehemiah. In 1960, Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann was captured and flown from Argentina to Israel on an El Al aircraft.
In 1955, after using Lockheed Constellations for several years, the airline purchased two Bristol Britannia aircraft. El Al was the second airline in the world to fly this plane, after the British Overseas Airways Corporation. In 1958, El Al ran a newspaper advertisement in the United States featuring a picture of a "shrunken" Atlantic Ocean ("Starting Dec. 23, the Atlantic Ocean will be 20% smaller") to promote its non-stop transatlantic flights. This was a bold step: the airline industry had never used images of the ocean in its advertising because of the widespread public fear of airline crashes. The advertisement, which ran only once, proved effective. Within a year, El Al's sales tripled.
Expansion in the 1960s
Despite the purchase of its Britannias and inauguration of non-stop transatlantic flights the airline remained unprofitable.[further explanation needed] When Efraim Ben-Arzi took over the company in the late 1950s, the Britannias were replaced in the next decade by the Boeing 707 and Boeing 720 jet airliners.
The first year that El Al turned a profit was 1960. That year, more than 50 percent of the passengers flying into Israel arrived on El Al flights. On 15 June 1961, the airline set a world record for the longest non-stop commercial flight: an El Al Boeing 707 flew from New York to Tel Aviv, covering 5,760 miles (9,270 km) in 9 hours and 33 minutes. By this time, El Al was carrying 56,000 passengers a year—on a par with Qantas and ahead of established airlines like Loftleiðir. In 1961, El Al ranked 35th in the world in accumulated passenger distance. El Al's success continued into the late 1960s. In 1968, regular flights to Bucharest were inaugurated, and cargo flights began to Europe and the United States. The airline also established a catering subsidiary, Teshet Tourism and Aviation Services Ltd. All these ventures brought in a profit of $2 million that year.
Late 1960s hijacking attempts
In 1968, El Al experienced the first of many acts of terrorism that have been perpetrated against the airline. On 23 July, the only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft took place, when a Boeing 707 carrying 10 crew and 38 passengers was taken over by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). The aircraft, El Al Flight 426, which was en route from Rome to Tel Aviv, was diverted to Algiers by the hijackers. Negotiations with the hijackers lasted for 40 days. Both the hijackers and the passengers, including 21 Israeli hostages, were eventually freed. The hijackers were said to have believed Israeli General Ariel Sharon was on the flight. According to Sarah Levy, it was the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson who saved Sharon's life, by advising him the night before to take a different flight. On 26 December of the same year, two PFLP members attacked an El Al aircraft at Athens International Airport, killing an Israeli mechanic. The Israeli Defense Forces responded to the incident on 29 December, with a night-time raid on Lebanon's Beirut Airport, destroying 14 planes on the ground belonging to Middle East Airlines, Trans Mediterranean Airways and Lebanese International Airways. The military action was responsible for the demise of the LIA, which had most of its fleet destroyed.
On 18 February 1969, Palestinians attacked an El Al plane at Zurich Airport killing the copilot and injuring the pilot. One Palestinian attacker was killed and others were convicted but later released. Between September and December of that year, bomb and grenade attacks occurred at El Al offices in Athens, West Berlin, and Brussels. This wave of violence culminated in the failed hijacking of an El Al 707 by Patrick Arguello and Leila Khaled on 6 September 1970, as part of the Dawson's Field hijackings.
The 1970s and 1980s
El Al acquired its first Boeing 747 jet in 1971. Many[who?] felt it was a risky purchase given the high cost of the plane and fear of attacks, but El Al operations flourished after the purchase. Another Boeing 747 was delivered in 1973 and was used to start non-stop service from Tel Aviv to New York (El Al – Boeing 707s had flown the eastward nonstop since around 1961).
El Al passengers and passengers from other airlines were attacked at Lod Airport in 1972, it was known as the Lod Airport massacre.
In the mid-1970s El Al began to schedule flights from airports outside of Israel that departed on the Jewish sabbath and landed in Israel after it had finished. However, the religious parties in the government were in arms over this, being that this was a violation of Jewish law and contrary to the agreement signed in the early days of the state, in which El Al promised to refrain from flying on the sabbath. In 1982 the newly re-elected prime minister Menachem Begin, brought before the Knesset a vote to ban Sabbath flights once again (it passed by a vote of 58 to 54). Outraged, the secular community threatened to boycott the airline. In August 1982 El Al workers blocked Orthodox and Hassidic Jews from entering the airport.
In 1977 El Al established a charter subsidiary, El Al Charter Services Ltd., later renamed Sun D'Or International Airlines Ltd. Two years earlier the airline had suffered its first losses since the late 1950s, largely a product of the global recession. The management changed three times towards the end of the 1970s, until Itzhak Shander was named president.[clarification needed] As the political situation in Iran deteriorated, El Al began to airlift Jews to Israel. All the airline's infrastructure in Iran was eventually destroyed. El Al flights to Cairo were inaugurated in April 1980, following the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty. In late 1982, after a long period of labor disputes and strikes, El Al operations were suspended. The government appointed Amram Blum to run the company, which lost $123.3 million in the fiscal year ending April 1983.[clarification needed] The airline also sold its stake in Arkia at this time.
Operations resumed in January 1983 under receivership. The government purchased two new Boeing 737 aircraft and announced plans to acquire four Boeing 767 jets at the cost of $200 million. Within four years, El Al was profitable again. It broke another record, since then surpassed, in May 1988 with a non-stop flight from Los Angeles to Tel Aviv, a journey of 7,000 nautical miles (13,000 km) in 13 hours and 41 minutes.[clarification needed]
In January 1990, North American Airlines began providing feeder services to El Al's US destinations. El Al held a 24.9 percent stake in the airline until selling it back to Dan McKinnon in July 2003. By this time, El Al was operating a fleet of 20 aircraft, including nine Boeing 747s, and had begun replacing its aging Boeing 707s with the Boeing 757. Early that year, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, El Al inaugurated regular flights to Moscow. No airlifts from the former Soviet Union were possible at the time but permission was granted in 1991. Charter flights commenced in August 1991, with immigrants also occupying all available seats on El Al's scheduled routes. In cooperation with Aeroflot, El Al flew more than 400,000 Jewish immigrants to Israel within a three-year period.
On 24 May 1991, an El Al Boeing 747 cargo plane airlifted a record-breaking 1,087 Ethiopian Jews from Addis Ababa to Israel in the framework of Operation Solomon. Three babies were born during the flight. The plane carried twice as many passengers as it was designed for. In less than 36 hours, 14,500 Ethiopian Jews were flown to Israel. On 27 April 1994, El Al received its first Boeing 747-400.
El Al flights were inaugurated to the Far East[when?] and, in 1995, El Al signed its first codesharing agreement with American Airlines. In February 1995, the receivership under which the airline had technically been operating since 1982 came to an end. In June 1996, El Al recorded its first flight from Israel to Amman, Jordan.
In 1996, El Al recorded US$83.1 million in losses, due to the resumption of terrorist activities and the government's open skies policy. To keep its planes flying during this period, El Al introduced flights "to nowhere": passengers were offered various kinds of in-flight entertainment as the plane circled the Mediterranean. One-day shopping trips to London and visits to religious sites in eastern Europe were also promoted. In 1997, El Al opened a separate cargo division.[clarification needed]
El Al's first Boeing 777 embarked on its maiden flight in March 2000. Later that year the controversy over flights on Shabbat erupted again, when the airline announced that it was losing US$55 million a year by grounding its planes on Saturdays. After privatization of the company began in June 2003, the policy regarding sabbath flights was expected to change.
The first phase of the long-delayed privatization of the company commenced in June 2003 and by Israel's Government Companies Authority, headed by Eyal Gabbai. 15 percent of El Al's shares were listed on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. By June 2004, 50% of the company had been sold to the public. By January 2005, a controlling share of the company had been transferred to Knafaim-Arkia Holdings Ltd. As of October 2014, El Al's major shareholders are Knafaim Holdings (36%), Ginsburg Group (10%) and Delek Group (10%).
In August 2010, El Al and JetBlue Airlines signed an agreement to provide connecting through tickets between Israel and 61 destinations in the United States from October 2010, via John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York.
In 2015, El Al introduced a requirement that female flight attendants wear high heels until passengers had been seated. The airline's workers' union stated that the requirement would endanger the health and safety of the flight attendants and instructed its members to ignore the rule. Later that year the requirement was removed.
In July 2019, El Al retired its sole freight aircraft, a Boeing 747-400F, ending its dedicated cargo flights. The airline plans to use charter services by other airlines for this purpose from now on.
Company affairs and identity
During 2005, the airline transported 3.5 million passengers, a rise from 3.2 million in 2004 and 2.8 million in 2003. 60% of the airline's passengers are Israeli. In 2006, El Al posted a $44.6 million loss on revenues of $1.665 billion. The company is facing four lawsuits, two of which have been approved as class actions, which could cost the company $176.2 million.[when?] El Al spends $100 million a year to conform with the airline security measures required by Israel's Shin Bet security service. In early 2007, El Al opened a new King David Lounge at Charles de Gaulle airport in Paris. New lounges at Heathrow airport in London and JFK International airport in New York had also opened in late 2007.
In 2007, El Al invested NIS 1 billion in the purchase of two new Boeing 777-200s that included an updated El Al decal. The aircraft are fitted with upgraded seats with adjustable headrests and legrests. Each seat is equipped with a touch-screen entertainment system. The first aircraft, named "Sderot", completed its maiden flight from New York to Tel Aviv on 26 July 2007. The second, "Kiryat Shmona", was delivered at the end of August 2007.
After the United States Federal Aviation Administration downgraded Israel's aviation safety rating to 2 in February 2009, an IATA member has warned El Al, as well as competing airlines Arkia and Israir, that they may appear on the European blacklist of banned carriers. Giora Romm, head of the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel, responded to the claim, stating: "We are in close contact with the Europeans," He added, "I don't know what the fuss is about. The Europeans' e-mail is strange. We are doing everything we can to improve security." The European Union has yet to make an official statement on the matter. El Al uses the Amadeus CRS system for reservation, inventory, check-in and online bookings. In November 2012, the United States FAA restored Israel's category 1 rating.
El Al has a cargo branch, El Al Cargo, which became independent in 1997. As the national cargo airline of Israel, it operates between Tel Aviv, Liege and New York plus ad hoc worldwide charters with one Boeing 747-200F aircraft. Before 2001, when the Israeli air cargo market opened up to competition, El Al Cargo enjoyed a monopoly. Now its main competition comes from CAL Cargo Air Lines.
As of 2011, the company employs a staff of 6,056 globally and has a fleet of 37 aircraft. The company's revenues for 2016 were $2.04 billion, totalling losses of $80.7 million compared to a profit of $57 million in 2010.
The key trends for El Al Israel Airlines Ltd. are shown below (as at year ending 31 December):
|Currency in Millions of US Dollars||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017|
|Passenger aircraft, operation revenue||1.832,0||1.489,5||1.764,5||1.829,5||1.827,9||1.920,3||1.910,6||1.874,2||1.847,1||1.880,1||89,7%|
|Cargo aircraft, operation revenue||139,5||58,3||87,5||99,4||80,4||70,4||69,9||71,4||64,2||64,5||3,1%|
|Other revenue and Adjustments revenue||124,9||108,0||119,4||113,7||107,3||112,4||100,8||108.4||127,1||152,5||7,3%|
|Selling, Administrative, General and Others expenses/revenues||−325,7||−286,6||−299,6||−321,6||−301,6||−310,6||−291,4||−291,4||−289,4||-319,4|
|Financing expenses/income, net||−44,6||−26,3||−25,1||0,3||−37,0||−25,4||−26,6||−26,5||−23,1||-20,5|
|Share of the profits of subsidiaries, net of tax||0,5||0,4||0,0||1,4||1,4||0,3||1,1||0,8||6,0||0,2|
|Profit/loss before tax||−49,7||−100,8||62,2||−42,2||−23,4||39,2||−38,3||144,6||93,5||8,7||0,4%|
|Profit/loss after tax||−41,9||−76,3||56,5||−49,8||−18,2||26,7||−28,1||106,5||80,7||5,7||0,3%|
On 26 November 2013, El Al unveiled its now-defunct low cost airline Up, which commenced operations on 30 March 2014, initially to Berlin, Budapest, Kiev, Larnaca and Prague using five Boeing 737-800s transferred from the El Al fleet. Up was founded by its parent El Al to be used on some routes to Europe where it replaced El Al itself. All Up flights were operated by El Al, using El Al's call sign and codes with a four digit number. For flights over two hours the airline offered a buy on board service.
In August 2014, Ryanair CEO Michael O'Leary foreshadowed the development of a Ryanair Israel, connecting Israel with cities across Europe. He said an inhibiting factor in the plan was Israeli authorities' protectiveness of El Al from competition. The CEO of Up wished to recreate the airline business world. Ryanair started serving Ovda Airport and Ben Gurion Airport in the winter season 2017/18 from several airports throughout Europe.
The charter operations of the Group is carried out through Sun D'Or, a company fully owned by El Al. Sun D'Or operates as a tourist organizer for wholesalers and individuals and markets charter and scheduled flights, both by means of leasing full aircraft capacity to third parties, or aircraft parts' capacity to a number of partners for pre-negotiated prices, or by direct sales. Starting from 2011, Sun D'Or operates as a tourist organizer, while maintaining the "Sun D'Or" brand for scheduled and charter flights marketed by Sun D'Or. In March 2011, The Israel Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) announced the suspension of Sun d'Or's operating license effective 1 April 2011. The CAA based its decision citing non-compliance with Israeli and international airline management standards, mainly lack of self-owned planes and crew. Since then, Sun d'Or no longer operates own aircraft but utilizes planes from its parent, El Al.
Tamam (a company fully owned by El Al) is mainly engaged in the production and supply of kosher ready meals to airline companies.
Katit (a company fully owned by El Al) is mainly engaged in the production and supply of meals to the Company's employees.
The main business of Borenstein, a company (fully owned by El Al) registered in the U.S. and operating at New York's JFK airport, is the production and supply of kosher ready meals to airlines and other institutions.
Superstar (a company fully owned by El Al) is a tourist wholesaler that markets tourist package deals to travel agents and passengers, and sells airline tickets at discounted prices for flights on the Company's routes.
As a prime target for terrorism, El Al employs stringent security procedures, both on the ground and on board its aircraft. These effective, though time-consuming and discriminatory procedures have won El Al's security reputation. In 2008, the airline was named by Global Traveler magazine as the world's most secure airline.
Onboard missile defense systems
Since the early 2000s, El Al has been the only commercial airline to fit its planes with systems to defend against anti-aircraft missiles. In 2014, El Al began to fit some of its planes that fly on more sensitive routes with an updated missile approach warning system (MAWS) that employs an infrared missile-tracking camera, an “infrared (IR), ultra-violet (UV), or radar missile-approach warning sensor to detect a missile launch in the very early stages of an attack” and a laser system to act as a counter-measure. In November 2014, under the Israeli government's SkyShield programme, Elbit's Commercial Multi-Spectral Infrared Countermeasures (C-MUSIC) system was adopted by El Al. "C-MUSIC is one of the biggest and most complex projects ever undertaken at Elbit and in Israel".
Airport security measures
At Israel's Ben Gurion Airport, plainclothes agents and fully armed police or military personnel patrol the premises for explosives, suspicious behavior, and other threats. Armed security personnel also patrol El Al terminals overseas. Inside the terminal, passengers and their baggage are checked by a trained team. El Al security procedures require that all passengers be interviewed individually prior to boarding, allowing El Al staff to identify possible security threats. Passengers are asked questions about their place of origin, the reason for their trip, their job or occupation, and whether they have packed their bags themselves. El Al believes interviewers can spot signs of nervousness.
At the check-in counter, passengers' passports and tickets are closely examined. A passport without a sticker from the security checkers will not be accepted. At passport control passengers' names are checked against information from the FBI, Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), Scotland Yard, Shin Bet, and Interpol databases. Luggage is screened and sometimes hand searched. In addition, bags are put through a decompression chamber simulating pressures during flight that could trigger explosives. Even at overseas airports, El Al security agents conduct all luggage searches personally, even if they are supervised by government or private security firms.
Flight security measures
Undercover agents (sometimes referred to as sky marshals) carrying concealed firearms sit among the passengers on every international El Al flight. Most El Al pilots are former Israeli Air Force pilots.[note 1] The cockpits in all El Al aircraft have double doors to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. A code is required to access the doors, and the second door will open only after the first has closed and the person has been identified by the captain or first officer. Furthermore, there are reinforced steel floors separating the passenger cabin from the baggage hold.
In April 2013, the Israeli government increased payments to El Al to secure 97.5% of the airlines' security costs, ahead of the Open Skies agreement to take effect in 2014 with the European Union.
Security controversy and passenger profiling
The airline was criticized by Hungarian courts for refusing to search luggage with the passenger present, acting against Hungarian domestic laws stipulating that only authorized officials are able to undertake such searches.
In 2008, a civil case was brought to the Supreme Court of Israel by the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, which alleged that El Al's practice of ethnic profiling illegally singled out Arab passengers for tougher treatment. The group had petitioned "for the complete elimination of racial profiling" by the airline. In 2015, the court dismissed the petition on procedural grounds, accepting in part the government's argument "that it could not completely change without heavily burdening all travelers," but reimbursing the Association for Civil Rights in Israel a total of NIS 30,000 for its legal fees, and finding that the petition "had already gotten security to be less discriminatory." The court left the door open for a renewed petition in the future if required.
Treatment of female passengers
In September 2014 it was reported that there have been repeated incidents where some ultra-Orthodox male passengers refused to sit next to women passengers, sometimes delaying flights. As result, a petition was initiated with Change.org to pressure El Al to alter their policy of allowing ultra-Orthodox passengers on flights to negotiate switching seats. The petition reads: "Why does El Al Airlines permit female passengers to be bullied, harassed, and intimidated into switching seats which they rightfully paid for and were assigned to by El Al Airlines? One person's religious rights do not trump another person's civil rights."
Following the incidents, Iris Richman, founder of Jewish Voices Together, a group created to address issues of religious pluralism in Israel and the U.S., encouraged passengers to protest this behavior through the US government, referencing "49 U.S. Code § 40127 – Prohibitions on discrimination: Persons in Air Transportation." According to this directive, she wrote, "An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not subject a person in air transportation to discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex or ancestry." Richman contacted the U.S. Department of Transportation, Aviation Consumer Protection Division, and stated the department "is willing to investigate any situation where any employee of a carrier – i.e. a steward/ess – participated in asking someone to change a seat because of their gender."
In November 2014 Tova Ross in the Forward; disagreed that this is discrimination against women. She wrote, "...If we [women] want the right to pray and practice and dress in the ways we see fit, why do we cast such caustic aspersions on the premise of a man who calmly asks to change his seat in order for him not to stray from his preferred religious outlook?"..."A favor for a fellow human being, no matter how archaic we may deem his beliefs. We are indulging a request that we may neither understand nor agree with, but if it doesn’t really put us out, if the flight isn’t full and there is in fact someone who will easily volunteer to switch seats, then what is everyone’s colossal problem with the mere premise?"
El Al said that it would not put a policy in place to handle situations where male Haredim refuse to sit next to female passengers, but would instead attempt to satisfy passengers involved in such incidents on a case by case basis.
In February 2016, Renee Rabinowitz filed a successful lawsuit against El Al after being involved in an incident where an ultra-Orthodox man refused to sit next to her on a flight from Newark International Airport to Tel Aviv and the flight attendants asked her to move seats. Later in 2018, the airline decided to immediately remove any passengers who refuse to sit next to a woman.
In 2013, the media reported that an El Al flight unprecedentedly returned to the gate to retrieve an 11-year-old cancer patient, Inbar Chomsky, who was removed from the flight after she misplaced her passport. Just before takeoff, her passport was found in another passenger's backpack, and the crew began to negotiate for the plane to return and pick up the distressed young traveler on her way to a summer camp for children with serious illnesses. El Al released a statement noting that "planes rarely return to the gate after departing...but when the passport was found on the plane...a decision was made and the plane returned to pick up Inbar.”
El Al serves destinations on four continents in 31 countries with a well-developed European network that also takes in important cities in Russia. The airline serves a number of gateway cities in North America and has expanded its service to cover central and southeast Asia (Bangkok, Mumbai) and the Far East (Beijing and Hong Kong). However, El Al's inability to overfly Saudi Arabian airspace, along with that of several other Arab and Muslim countries, has reduced their ability to further expand their route network in Asia. Saudi Arabia has recently granted permission to Air India to fly a thrice weekly flight from Tel Aviv to New Delhi using Saudi Arabian airspace. If Saudi Arabia does not allow El Al to use their airspace, El Al might lose a large share of their Asian market due to other airlines having shorter and cheaper flights. However, the recent contacts between Israeli and Saudi officials may change the Saudi position. It also offers services to Johannesburg in South Africa and Zanzibar.
- Aerolíneas Argentinas
- Air China
- Air Serbia
- Alaska Airlines
- American Airlines
- Ethiopian Airlines
- Hong Kong Airlines
- LATAM Brasil
- LOT Polish Airlines
- S7 Airlines
- Swiss International Air Lines
- TAP Air Portugal
- Thai Airways
- Vietnam Airlines
|2||—||—||—||189||189||Operated for subsidiary Sun d'Or|
|Boeing 747-400||3||—||8||41||34||322||405||To be replaced with Boeing 787s in Q4 2019|
|Boeing 787-8||—||4||—||20||35||183||238||Deliveries planned to start from November 2019|
El Al used to operate the following types of aircraft as well which meanwhile have been retired:
El Al's historic, superseded livery featured a turquoise/navy blue stripe down the side of the aircraft, and a turquoise tailfin with the flag of Israel at the top. El Al's logo was featured above the front run of windows on each side of the plane in the turquoise/navy scheme. The new livery features a blue stripe with a thick silver border on the bottom that sweeps across the side of the aircraft near the wing, disappears over the top of the plane and reappears at the bottom of the tailfin. The El Al logo is part of the design, although it has been changed slightly since then. Most of El Al's aircraft are named for Israeli cities, such as Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Bet Shemesh, Nazeret, Haifa, and others. The larger the aircraft – the bigger or more populated the city it is named after. The cities' names are located near the nose of the plane beneath the cockpit windows. One aircraft, a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner, is painted in the livery that El Al used in the 1960s and 1970s as part of the airline's 70th year of operations, using a gray belly, white roof with El Al titles, a blue cheatline, and the flag of Israel on the vertical stabilizer that was introduced with the introduction of the Boeing 707 to the El Al fleet.
By contrast, El Al's cargo plane livery in the past lacks the painting of Israel's flag and its airline identity; only a word "Cargo" appears on the fuselage. Subsequently, the most recent cargo plane livery (a now retired Boeing 747-400F) was painted white except for the airline's name and Cargo..
Frequent flyer program
Matmid is El Al's present frequent flyer program. King David club cards (red) were issued 1991. It was re-launched in 2004 following the merger of El Al's previous frequent flyer programs. It has five tiers: Matmid, Matmid Silver, Matmid Gold, Matmid Platinum and Matmid TOP Platinum. Points accumulated in the program entitle members to bonus tickets, flight upgrades, and discounts on car rentals, hotel stays, and other products and services. Points are also awarded for travel with partner airlines, as well as for nights at partner hotels and for credit card purchases. Matmid points can be collected on most flights operated by South African Airways, Sun D'Or, Qantas and limited Aeroméxico flights Points are accumulated for any fares (ex. promotions), and points age—i.e. lose their validity after three years. To join Matmid, a one-time fee must be paid.
The King David Lounge is the name adopted by El Al for special airport lounges that serve the airline's premium class passengers. There are six King David Lounges worldwide at the key airports at Ben Gurion International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Newark Liberty International Airport, Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, London Heathrow Airport and Los Angeles International Airport. All King David Lounges offer drinks, snacks, newspapers and magazines (Israeli and foreign), while some lounges also offer free Wi-Fi internet access. The King David Lounge at Terminal 3 at Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion airport is equipped with a telephone, shower facilities and a spa; it has a separate section for first-class passengers.
El Al offers four types of classes on its planes:
- First class – Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 777-200ER. First class is in a 2–2 configuration and has a pitch of 79" and 23" wide.
- Business class – on all planes (type of business seat changes with type of aircraft). Business class on the 787 is in a 1-2-1 configuration while the 777 and 747 are in 2-3-2 business class configuration. Business class on the 747, 777 has a seat pitch of 55" and 19.5" wide. On the 787, the dimensions are 78" and 23" respectively, and 44" and 20.5" on all 737 aircraft.
- Premium economy class – on all wide-body aircraft. Same configuration as economy on the 747 and 777 with 36" seat pitch, and is branded as “Economy Plus”. On the 787, the seat pitch is 38" with an 18.5" wide seat, in a 2-3-2 configuration and is branded as “Premium Economy”.
- Economy class – All planes. Economy class has a seat pitch of 32" (31" on the 787) and 18" seat width (17" on the 737 and 787).
In Flight Entertainment
Personal AVOD screens are provided on all Boeing 777-200ER, Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 787s. Streaming with iPads and smartphones by an El Al app is provided on the Boeing 737-900ER and some Boeing 737-800, where there are no personal AVOD screens.
Accidents and incidents
Over its history, El Al has been involved in the following incidents and accidents, involving both the aircraft actually operated by the airline and its outstations abroad. Most of these incidents are related to Palestinian terrorism, particularly in the period between 1968 and 1990, and so incidents are separated by terrorist and non-terrorist incidents. Despite these attacks, EL Al has not lost a passenger on any passenger flight since 1955.
Terrorist attacks and incidents
- On 23 July 1968, El Al Flight 426, operated by a Boeing 707-458C en route from London to Tel Aviv via Rome, registered 4X-ATA, was hijacked by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) shortly after take-off from Rome-Fiumicino airport and forcibly diverted to Algiers. The hijacking ended after 40 days and is considered to be the only successful hijacking involving an El Al jet.
- On 18 February 1969, El Al Flight 432, operated Boeing 720-058B, registered 4X-ABB, was attacked at Zurich Airport by members of the PFLP while taxiing for takeoff en route from Amsterdam to Tel Aviv, via a Zurich intermediate stop. Seven people were wounded including the copilot who later died from his wounds. In a firefight involving security personnel aboard the aircraft, one hijacker was killed, while the others were arrested. The hijackers were later put on trial in Winterthur, Switzerland but were released following the Dawson's Field hijackings one year later.
- On 6 September 1970, El Al Flight 219 from Tel Aviv to New York, with a stopover in Amsterdam, operated by a Boeing 707-458C registered 4X-ATB, was the target of an attempted hijacking by Leila Khaled and Patrick Argüello, members of the Sandinistas working in concert with the PLFB after taking off from Amsterdam. The hijacking was meant to be one of the Dawson's Field hijackings, but it was thwarted by the pilot and on-board air marshal. The aircraft diverted to Heathrow Airport, where Argüello and Khaled were turned over to British authorities; Argüello, who was shot earlier, died en route to a hospital.
- On 16 August 1972, a bomb exploded in the luggage compartment of El Al Flight 444 shortly after takeoff from Rome. The plane returned to Rome safely and no casualties were recorded. The bomb had been hidden in the luggage of two British nationals who had the bombs placed there by Arab acquaintances.
- On 13 January 1975, several men, including Carlos the Jackal, made an unsuccessful attempt to destroy an El Al airliner parked at Paris Orly Airport. The men tried again on January 17, also without success.
- On 27 December 1985, after several failed attempts to attack El Al aircraft, guerrillas of the Fatah Revolutionary Council attacked El Al and TWA ticket counters at Rome-Fiumicino and Vienna-Schwechat airports, killing 18 people.
- A terrorist attack was foiled on 18 April 1986 in what became known as the Hindawi Affair. A pregnant Irishwoman named Anne-Marie Murphy was about to board an El Al flight at London's Heathrow airport when her bag was found to contain three pounds of plastic explosives. These had been planted by her fiancé Nezar Hindawi, who was booked on a different flight. Hindawi was jailed for 45 years, the longest sentence (short of a life sentence) ever delivered by a British court. There was evidence that Syrian officials were involved and as a result, Britain cut off diplomatic relations with Syria.
- On 4 July 2002, Hesham Mohamed Hadayet shot six Israeli passengers (resulting in two deaths) at El Al's ticket counter at Los Angeles International Airport before he was shot and killed by an El Al security guard. Two of the victims died. Although not linked to any terrorist group, Hadayet, an Egyptian, espoused anti-Israeli views and was opposed to US policy in the Middle East. The US Federal Bureau of Investigation classified the shooting as a terrorist act, one of the few on US soil since the September 11, 2001 attacks.
- On 17 November 2002, El Al FLight 581, a flight operated by a Boeing 767-258(ER) from Tel Aviv to Istanbul, registered 4X-EBS, was the scene of an attempted hijacking by Tawfiq Fukra, a twenty-three-year-old Israeli Arab reportedly armed with a pocket knife. Fukra attempted to break into the cockpit in order to fly the aircraft back to Israel and crash it into a building. He was apprehended by on-board security personnel.
Non-terrorist accidents and incidents
- On 24 November 1951, a Douglas DC-4, registered 4X-ADN, on a cargo flight from Tel Aviv to Amsterdam via Zurich crashed on approach to Zürich, killing 6 crew members.
- On 27 July 1955, a Lockheed Constellation operating El Al Flight 402, registered 4X-AKC, was shot down by two Bulgarian Air Force fighter jets over Blagoevgrad, near Sofia, Bulgaria, after it strayed into Bulgarian airspace in rough weather. All 58 passengers and crew were killed.
- On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a cargo flight from New York to Tel Aviv via Amsterdam, operated by a Boeing 747-258F cargo plane registered 4X-AXG, crashed into two highrise apartment buildings (Kruitberg and Groeneveen) in Bijlmermeer, a neighborhood of Amsterdam, shortly after takeoff and while attempting to return to Amsterdam. The crash was caused by structural failure of the fuse pins on the #3 engine, causing that engine to detach from the aircraft, knocking off the #4 engine with it, causing the aircraft to roll to the right. The three crew members, one passenger in a jump seat, and 39 people on the ground were killed.
Notable El Al employees
- Mordechai Hod – Commander of the Israeli Air Force during the 1967 Six-Day War, served as El Al CEO 1977 -1979
- Eliezer Shkedi – Former commander of the Israeli Air Force, served as El Al CEO 2010 – 2014
- Pinchas Ben-Porat – Palmach Member, one of Israel's first aviators
- Giora Epstein – Israeli Air Force pilot, flying ace
- Eliezer Cohen – politician
- Yoav Kish – politician
- Abie Nathan – humanitarian and peace activist
- Gali Atari – singer and actress, winner of the 1979 Eurovision Song Contest
- Janna Gur – food writer, editor and cook book author
- Miki Haimovich – anchorwoman, television presenter
- Adir Miller – actor, screenwriter and comedian
- Sara Netanyahu – wife of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
- Alma Zack – actress
- Most, but not all, El Al's pilots are former pilots of the Israeli Air Force. An article dedicated to an El Al female captain can be found at With Yom Haatzmaut Festivities, a Gender Barrier Is Broken – The Sisterhood – Forward.com
- "El Al Flight Schedule". El Al. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- "TASE Site – Profile". Tase.co.il. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- United States. "ELAL Israel Airlines LTD". Seabury APG. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "Flag carrier El Al thrives despite high fuel costs and competition". Flightglobal. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014.
- "EL AL named most secure airline". The Jerusalem Post. 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "El Al secure because it must be". CNN. 2002-07-05. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- Kohn, David (February 11, 2009). "The Safest Airline". CBSnews. Retrieved 2012-04-12.
- Walt, Vivienne (January 10, 2001). "Unfriendly skies are no match for El Al". USA Today. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
- "Aviation World Records". Think Quest. Archived from the original on 2007-02-28. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- Brinkley, Joel (May 26, 1991). "Ethiopian Jews and Israelis Exult as Airlift Is Completed". The New York Times.
- Orme, William A. Jr. (March 5, 1999). "El Al at a Turning Point; A Mirror of Israel's Divisions Prepares to Go 49% Public". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- Wagner, Matthew (2006-12-06). "Another report of non-kosher food on El Al plane". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2012-04-12.
- "El Al, Major financial and operational statistics for 2016" (PDF). El Al. March 2017. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
- "El Al, Major financial and operational statistics for 2011" (PDF). El Al. March 2012. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
- "El Al Company History". Answers.com Premium Partner. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
- Kanon, Sharon (April 7, 2000). "El Al flies to rescue throughout the world". Jewish Bulletin. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El-Al, Israel's Airline". Gates of Jewish Heritage. Archived from the original on 2001-02-22. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
- "History of El Al". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "The Beast in Chains". Time. June 6, 1960. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
- "Adman's Adman". Time. March 31, 1958. Retrieved 2007-05-28.[dead link]
- "Doyle Dane Bernbach". Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- "El Al, the Israeli Airline". US Centennial of Flight. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- "Drama of the Desert: The Week of the Hostages". Time. September 21, 1970. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "Timelines". Raptureready.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-18. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
- Levy, Sara. "The General's Rebbe – Life". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
- "A history of El Al incidents". One News. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- "Lebanese International Airways". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
- Bard, Mitchell Geoffrey. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict. Alpha Books.
- Tugend, Tom (February 24, 2006). "The Day a New Terrorism Was Born". Jewish Journal. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- Avner, Yehuda (2010). The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership. The Toby Press. p. 599. ISBN 978-1-59264-278-6.
- "Sde Dov/Tel Aviv". Global Security. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
- Keinin, Herb (November 28, 1991). "El Al flies olim on first direct charter". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2007-05-31.
- "El Al Airlines posts $15 million profits". Jewish Bulletin Online. 1996-04-26. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al Cargo Profile". El Al. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
- Friedman, Ron (13 August 2010). "El Al signs agreement with American Airlines". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Tucker, Erika. "'I don't think the girls thought they could question it': high heels policy study author". Global News. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- Yedidyah Ben Or, 10/09/15 12:26. "El Al Flight Attendants Say Goodbye to High Heels". Israel National News. Retrieved 2019-06-06.
- cargofacts.com - El Al ceases 747 freighter ops, looks to AirBridge and ASL for charters 3 July 2019
- "Financial Data". El Al. Archived from the original on November 29, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
- "Israel special—Flag carrier El Al thrives despite high fuel costs and competition". Flight International. Flight Global. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
- Standard & Poor's El Al Income Statement Data Archived May 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Blumenkratz, Zohar (2007-06-07). "What irks El Al passengers". Haaretz. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- Coren, Ora (June 21, 2007). "Business in Brief- Transport minister: El Al to be compensated for surrendering its monopoly". Haaretz. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- Zimmerman, Dana (2007-01-16). "El Al opens King David lounge in Paris". Ynet News. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al's Ace in the Hat: The Boeing 777". infolive.tv. 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Airlines race to prevent European flight ban". 2009-02-27. Archived from the original on 2011-09-16.
- "Amadeus Press release".
- "After 4 years, Israel regains Category 1 aviation safety ranking".
- Manji, Irshad. The Trouble with Islam Today. Macmillan, March 16, 2005. p. 73. "The flight's safety video, though narrated in Hebrew, had Arabic subtitles." Retrieved from Google Books on November 4, 2012. ISBN 0312327005, 9780312327002.
- "Financial Information". El Al. 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "UP livery on a 737–800". Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- Elis, Niv (2013-11-26). "El Al starting low cost airline". Jpost.com. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- "Menu" (Archive). Up. p. 5/5. Retrieved on 21 August 2014.
- "Israeli market beckons Ryanair". Irish Sun.com. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- ch-aviation.com - Israel's El Al to drop UP budget brand 4 January 2018
- "EL AL cancels low-cost brand UP, plans to implement new tourist class format". JOL. 4 January 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-07-14. Retrieved 2018-01-23.
- "Israel's Sun d'Or has operating licence withdrawn".
- Vause, John (24 May 2004). "Missile defense for El Al fleet". CNN. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Williams, Dan (February 16, 2006). "El Al Fits Fleet with Anti-Missile System". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- "IAI/Elta's "Flight Guard" Commercial Aircraft Protection System Funded". Israeli Aerospace Industries. 2003-09-08.
- "El Al Airlines installs anti-missile systems on passenger aircraft". Haaretz. 2006-02-15. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
El Al, Israel's national carrier and largest airline
- Ferran, Lee (July 23, 2014). "Israeli Airline With Missile Defenses Goes to Israel When US Carriers Won't". ABC News.
- Israel adopts C-MUSIC missile protection system for national airliners Gareth Jennings, London – IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 07 November 2014
- "Israeli-style security might have averted hijackings". USA Today. 2001-09-13. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al Decompression Chamber". Simcoe Engineering Group Limited. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved 2016-05-15.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "El Al wants to do own bag screening at Newark". USA Today. Associated Press. 12 May 2006. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014.
- "El Al sets security standards". BBC News. 2002-07-05. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "Model for air travel security may be El Al". CNN. 2001-09-26. Archived from the original on 2007-06-24. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- Silver, Eric (2006-08-15). "Flying under the eagle eyes of El Al's famed high security". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2006-08-15.
- "Israel Increases El Al Security Payments To End Strike Over Open Skies Deal". The Jewish Week. 2013-04-22. Archived from the original on 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
- Tarek, Ibrahim (December 2006). "Suspected Citizens: Racial Profiling Against Arab and non Jewish Passengers by Israeli Airlines and Airports" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Rights Group Says Airport's Racial Profiling Violates Israeli Law, Associated Press (March 20, 2008).
- Yonah Jeremy Bob, High Court Rules on Racial Profiling at Ben-Gurion Airport: Court dismisses a civil rights petition, but leaves the door open for future cases, Jerusalem Post (March 11, 2015).
- "Petition asks El Al to get tough on ultra-Orthodox 'bullying and harassing' of female passengers". Haaretz.com. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Ultra-Orthodox Jews delay El Al flight, refusing to sit near women". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Ultra-Orthodox Jews refuse to sit next to women, delay flight". New York Post. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "El Al 'gender discrimination' may violate U.S. law, claims N.Y. activist rabbi". Haaretz. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "About Us". The Forward. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
- "Don't Judge Hasidic Seat-Switchers". The Forward. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
- "El Al won't put in place policy on ultra-Orthodox men who refuse to sit by women". Haaretz. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "She Was Asked to Switch Seats. Now She's Charging El Al With Sexism". New York Times. 27 February 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "El Al lawsuit could set gender discrimination precedent". Y Net News. 27 February 2016.
- "Israeli airline to remove passengers who refuse to sit next to women". NBC News. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
- Berman, Lazar (15 August 2013). "Plane turns back to get cancer patient". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014.
- "El Al European Route Map". Airline Route Maps. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al Worldwide Route Map". Airline Route Maps. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "Profile on El Al". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 2016-10-29. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
- Liu, Jim (22 September 2017). "Aerolineas Argentinas / El Al begins codeshare partnership from Sep 2017". Retrieved 22 September 2017.
- "Aerolíneas Argentinas y El Al Israel Airlines anuncian acuerdo de código compartido". Aerolineas Argentinas S.A. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
- Liu, Jim. "El Al / Alaska Airlines begins codeshare partnership from May 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- Liu, Jim (7 September 2017). "El Al / Qantas codeshare partnership begins in Sep 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- Liu, Jim (10 November 2017). "El Al / TAP Air Portugal begins codeshare service from Oct 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- Liu, Jim (4 October 2017). "El Al / THAI expands codeshare service from Oct 2017". Routesonline. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Liu, Jim (12 November 2018). "El Al / Vietnam Airlines begins codeshare partnership from Nov 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
- Pallini, Thomas (2018-07-26). "El Al Goes Retro with New 787 Special Livery". Airline Geeks. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
- "Global Airline Guide 2017 (Part One)". Airliner World (October 2017): 18.
- "Israel Travel — Our Fleet". Retrieved 2017-10-09.
- Boeing 737-800 seating map, El Al website
- "El Al's plans to buy 787s will allow fleet renewal, perhaps expansion. Hainan, Cathay to Tel Aviv?". CAPA Centre for Aviation. 2015-08-10. Retrieved 2016-10-15.
- Boeing 777 seating map, El Al website Archived 2017-03-14 at the Wayback Machine
- "Rolls-Royce and El Al sign 787 Trent 1000 service deal". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
- "El Al outlines 787-8 network from Nov 2019". routesonline.com. 24 March 2019.
- ch-aviation.com – El Al ends B737-700 operations 10 May 2016
- - El Al Retires Last Cargo plane (Hebrew) - July 1st, 2019
- "EL AL Retiring the Last of its Boeing 757 Aircraft from Service | EL AL Airlines". Elal.co.il. 2012-11-26. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
- aeronauticsonline.com – El Al Retires Last Boeing 767 5 February 2019
- "El Al Superseded Livery". Airliners.net. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al New Livery". Airliners.net. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "Matmid Club" (PDF). Superstar Travel. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al Partner Airlines". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al King David Lounge". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "El Al King David Lounge Spa". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "ASN Aviation Safety Database - El Al Israel Airlines". Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "El Al hijack". Archived from the original on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Ginsburg, Mitch (24 March 2014). "How to thwart a gunman at 29,000 feet, by the only pilot who ever did". Times of Israel. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Ensalaco, Mark (2008). Middle Eastern terrorism: from Black September to September 11. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8122-4046-7.
- Kushner, Harvey W. (2003). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. London: Sage Publications. p. 322. ISBN 0761924086. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Booth, Jenny (2004-10-13). "El Al bomber too dangerous to release, court rules". Times Online. London. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-23.
His sentence of 45 years is believed to be the longest specific jail term ever imposed by an English court.
- Daniel Pipes (Spring 1989). "Terrorism: The Syrian Connection". The National Interest. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- "Los Angeles airport shooting kills 3". CNN. 2002-07-05. Archived from the original on 2004-12-04. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- "FBI, Justice: El Al attack was terrorism". CNN. 2003-04-12. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
- "Passengers recall El Al 'hijack' terror". BBC News World Edition. 2002-11-18. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- Fisher, Ian (2002-11-27). "Man Denies Trying To Hijack El Al Plane". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- Ashkenazi, Eli; Khoury, Jack (2005-10-11). "El Al hijacker released to house arrest". Haaretz. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- "ASN Aircraft accident description Douglas DC-4 4X-ADN — Zürich-Kloten". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- "Through the Curtain". Time. 1955-08-08. Retrieved 2007-05-23.
- "ASN Aircraft accident description Lockheed L-149 Constellation 4X-AKC — Petrich". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- Melman, Yossi. "An investigation behind bars". Haaretz. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Accident description El Al 1862". Aviation Safety. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
Media related to El Al at Wikimedia Commons