English Pastoral School

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The English Pastoral School,[1] sometimes called the English Nationalist School[2] or by detractors the Cow Pat School,[3] was a group of English classical music composers working during the early to mid 20th century, who sought to build a distinctively English style of music by basing their compositions on Tudor music and English folk music.[4] The leading composers of the school were Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst, with other notable figures including George Butterworth, John Ireland, Edmund Rubbra, Gerald Finzi, Ernest John Moeran and Peter Warlock.[5]


  1. ^ Rayborn 2016, p. 5.
  2. ^ Howes 1966, p. 197.
  3. ^ Rayborn 2016, p. 111.
  4. ^ Hughes & Stradling 2001, pp. 75-76.
  5. ^ Howes 1966, p. 246.


  • Howes, Frank (1966), The English Musical Renaissance, London: Secker & Warburg, OCLC 955517936
  • Hughes, Meirion; Stradling, Robert (2001), The English Musical Renaissance, 1840-1940: Constructing a National Music, Music and Society, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719058309, retrieved 2018-01-01
  • Rayborn, Tim (2016), A New English Music: Composers and Folk Traditions in England's Musical Renaissance from the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, ISBN 1476624941, retrieved 2018-01-01