Falcon 9 Block 5
The Block 5 variant of the Falcon 9 launching from Kennedy Space Center. The rocket's distinguishing black thermal protection coating on the interstage is discernible.
|Function||Orbital medium-lift launch vehicle|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Diameter||3.66 m (12.0 ft)|
|Mass||549,054 kg (1,210,457 lb)|
|Payload to LEO (28.5°)|
|Payload to GTO (27°)|
|Payload to Mars||4,020 kg (8,860 lb)|
|First flight||May 11, 2018|
|Engines||9 Merlin 1D+|
|Thrust||7,607 kN (1,710,000 lbf)|
|Fuel||Subcooled LOX / Chilled RP-1|
|Engines||1 Merlin 1D Vacuum|
|Thrust||934 kN (210,000 lbf)|
|Fuel||LOX / RP-1|
Falcon 9 Block 5 is a two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX in the United States. It is the fifth version of Falcon 9 Full Thrust. It is powered by Merlin engines, also developed by SpaceX, burning liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket-grade kerosene (RP-1) propellants.
SpaceX announced in 2017 that Falcon 9 Block 5 version has now succeeded the transitional Block 4. The largest changes between Block 3 and Block 5 are higher thrust on all of the engines and improvements on landing legs. Additionally, numerous small changes will help streamline recovery and re-usability of first-stage boosters. Alterations are focused on increasing the speed of production and efficiency of re-usability. SpaceX aims to fly each Block 5 booster ten times with only inspections in between, and up to 100 times with refurbishment.
The maiden flight launched the satellite Bangabandhu-1 on May 11, 2018. The CRS-15 mission on June 29, 2018 was the last Block 4 version of Falcon 9 to be launched. This was the transition to an all Block 5 fleet.
The Block 5 design changes are principally driven by upgrades needed for NASA's Commercial Crew program and National Security Space Launch requirements. They include performance upgrades, manufacturing improvements, and "probably 100 or so changes" to increase the margin for demanding customers.
In April 2017, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk said that Block 5 will feature 7–8% more thrust by uprating the engines (from 176,000 pounds-force (780,000 N) to 190,000 pounds-force (850,000 N) per engine). Block 5 includes an improved flight control system for an optimized angle of attack on the descent, lowering landing fuel requirements.
For reusability endurance:
- expected to be able to be launched at least 10 times.
- up to 100 uses with refurbishment.
- a reusable heat shield protecting the engines and plumbing at the base of the rocket;
- more temperature-resistant cast and machined titanium grid fins;
- a thermal protection coating on the first stage to limit reentry heating damage, including a black thermal protection layer on the landing legs, raceway, and interstage;
- Redesigned and requalified valves[which?] for higher levels and much longer duration.
- Redesigned composite overwrapped pressure vessels for helium, named COPV 2.0, to avoid oxygen freezing inside the structure of the tanks that lead to rupture.
For rapid reusability:
- reduced refurbishment between flights.
- a set of retractable landing legs for rapid recovery and shipping.
- The Octaweb structure is bolted together instead of welded, reducing manufacturing time.
NASA currently requires seven flights without major design changes before the vehicle can be certified for human spaceflight for carrying NASA astronauts. The initial Block 5 boosters did not have the newly redesigned composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) tanks, the first booster to include the new COPV tanks was booster B1047 on the Es'hail 2 mission on November 15, 2018, with the second flight of a booster with the COPV tanks being with Falcon 9 booster B1050, which was launched for the first time on December 5, 2018. Changes to the grid fin hydraulic system have also been proposed, following the malfunction of Booster B1050 during reentry and landing; it is unknown how this will affect the seven flight count.
- BFR launch system
- Falcon Heavy, three Falcon 9s strapped together
- List of Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launches
- "Falcon User's Guide" (PDF). 14 January 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- "Falcon 9". SpaceX. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "Capabilities & Services (2016)". SpaceX. 2012-11-28. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- "Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle Payload User's Guide" (PDF). 21 October 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- SpaceX. "Bangabandhu Satellite-1 Mission". Retrieved February 2, 2019 – via YouTube.
- SpaceX. "FALCON 9". SpaceX. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (2015-12-17). "-340 F in this case. Deep cryo increases density and amplifies rocket performance. First time anyone has gone this low for O2. [RP-1 chilled] from 70F to 20 F" (Tweet). Retrieved 19 December 2015 – via Twitter.
- Clark, Stephen (2017-04-04). "Musk previews busy year ahead for SpaceX". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Ralph, Eric (2018-06-05). "SpaceX will transition all launches to Falcon 9 Block 5 rockets after next mission". TESLARATI.com. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
- Shanklin, Emily (2018-06-29). "Dragon Resupply Mission (CRS-15)". SpaceX. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
- NASA (February 17, 2017). "NASA Holds Pre-launch Briefing at Historic Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center". Youtube.
- SpaceX Test-Fires New Falcon 9 Block 5 Rocket Ahead of Maiden Flight (Updated). Robin Seemangal, Popular Mechanics. 4 May 2018.
- SpaceX is about to land a whole lot more rockets. Loren Grush, The Verge. 22 July 2018.
- Musk, Elon (24 Jun 2017). "Flying with larger & significantly upgraded hypersonic grid fins. Single piece cast & cut titanium. Can take reentry heat with no shielding". @elonmusk. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
- "SpaceX Test-Fires New Falcon 9 Block 5 Rocket Ahead of Maiden Flight (Updated)". Popular Mechanics. 4 May 2018.
- "I am Andy Lambert, SpaceX's VP of Production. Ask me anything about production & manufacturing, and what it's like to be a part of our team!". reddit.com. 24 April 2018.
- Clark, Stephen. "New helium tank for SpaceX crew launches still waiting to fly – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved 2018-12-06.
- "SpaceX landing mishap won't affect upcoming launches". SpaceNews.com. 2018-12-05. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
- "NASA, Partners Update Commercial Crew Launch Dates – Commercial Crew Program". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
- Link to Falcon User's Guide, by SpaceX. Updated in January 2019 specifically for Block 5 upgrades.