Fauna of Finland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of the fauna of Finland. Finland borders Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and Norway to the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland, allowing an ecological mix. Finland contains many species of mammals, birds, and fish, but only a few reptiles and amphibians. This article discusses all the vertebrate animals which can be found on Finland itself, not the oceans.


There are over 90 species of mammals found in Finland and the surrounding oceans. Some were introduced from other countries in Europe, as well as other continents, such as Asia and North America. Rodents and shrews are most common in Finland.


There are close to 30 species of rodents living throughout Finland. These include the widespread Muridae, such as the house mouse, brown rat and wood mouse which live throughout Europe, and the Norway lemming, which only lives in Scandinavia. Some were introduced there, and they include the muskrat and nutria among others.


There are 3 species of rabbits and hares found in Finland. The common rabbit spread there from central Europe. It is now found in practically all of Europe. The other two species are hares.


There are 10 species of insectivore living in Finland. Eight of the ten are shrews, from the common shrew to the Eurasian water shrew. Shrews are very common in the forests of Finland. A species of mole and one of hedgehog are the remaining insectivores.


About 13 kinds of bat live in Finland.


Around 15 species of carnivore are found in Finland. Many of the larger carnivores were or are still in danger of dying out.


Pinnipeds includes all the seals, sea lions, and the walrus. Four pinnipeds are native to Finland year round (most living on the northern coast), but other species, such as the walrus, may migrate there during certain times of the year. The Saimaa ringed seal is a subspecies of ringed seal native exclusively to Finland and is a famous animal there, though it is also one of the most endangered seal subspecies in the world.


The order of Artiodactyl includes all even-hooved mammals. There are about 10 species that can be found in Finland. Many species have been either introduced or reintroduced there.

  • Wild boar, Sus scrofa (common)
  • Roe deer, Capreolus capreolus (common)
  • White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (common/introduced from North America)
  • Fallow deer, Dama dama (uncommon/introduced from other parts of Europe)
  • Red deer, Cervus elaphus (very rare/became extinct but recently spreading from Sweden)
  • Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus (common)
  • Moose, Alces alces (common)
  • Mouflon, Ovis musimon (rare/introduced from central Europe)


This order includes all the whales, toothed whales, and dolphins of the different waters. Finland does not have any large Cetacean species within its territories. Finland's only coast is on the baltic sea which is home to the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) which is the smallest of the dolphin species in the world's oceans. However, the Baltic Sea the population of harbour porpoise has dropped dramatically since the mid-1950s and is now at under 500. The top current threats for Baltic harbour porpoise are bycatch in fisheries, environmental toxins mostly from the Swedish paper industry and anthropogenic noise.


There are around 340 different kinds of birds all over Finland, from the cold north, to the temperate south. Most are native all year, but some species migrate to warmer areas during the winter. Like mammals, some of Finlands birds have been introduced.

Grebes and loons[edit]

Grebes and loons are two separate orders of birds. They are both semi-aquatic and appear similar to ducks.

Albatrosses and petrels[edit]

Albatrosses and petrels are two of the four families of marine diving birds that make up this order. Some of them look similar to sea gulls, but are found further out at sea. They live mostly off the coasts of Finland.


This includes not only pelicans, but also gannets and cormorants. There are 6 families in this order but only a few species are found in Finland.

Herons and storks[edit]

Herons and storks are just two of the better known families in this order, which contains a total of six families. All are wading birds who generally have predatory characteristics.


This order contains the ducks, geese, and swans. All are in a single family, which is very large and has species from all over the world. Finland has many species.

Grouse and pheasants[edit]

These include all the fowl of the world. Many species live in Finland and are a common food source.

Birds of prey[edit]

These are the most predatory birds in the world. There are five families in all. Eagles, hawks, falcons, and osprey can all be found in Finland.


There are 12 families in this order, which contains wading and ground birds. Cranes, rails, and bustards are the larger of the families, and contain members living in Finland.


This is a large order which contains many kinds of semi-aquatic and coastal birds. Plovers, sandpipers, gulls, and puffins are some of the members of the order. They all occur in Finland.


These are small birds that are very familiar to city people because of feral rock pigeons, which occur worldwide.


This family of birds is unique in that the mother bird may lay her eggs in another species nest, and have that female take care of her young. Only one species is found in Finland.


Owls are considered nocturnal birds of prey. They hunt and are mostly active during the night. Two families, the owls and barn owls, make up this order.


Only one species in this order is found all over Europe. Nightjars and their relatives are nocturnal and some show predatory behavior.


Swifts are a family of quick flying birds related to hummingbirds.


This order includes rollers, kingfishers, bee-eaters, and others. Most of these birds have very large beaks in proportion to their bodies.


The woodpeckers can make holes in trees with their strong beaks.


see List of reptiles of Finland

See also[edit]


  • Golden Encyclopedia of Mammals
  • Birds of Europe and Middle East
  • Nature in Finland