Flag of Italy
|Adopted||18 June 1946|
|Design||A vertical tricolour of green, white and red|
Variant flag of the
|Adopted||9 November 1948|
|Design||A defaced Italian tricolour|
Variant flag of the
|Adopted||24 October 2003|
|Design||A defaced Italian tricolour|
Variant flag of the
|Adopted||9 November 1947|
|Design||A defaced Italian tricolour|
The flag of Italy (Italian: Bandiera d'Italia), often referred to in Italian as il Tricolore (Italian: [il trikoˈloːre]); is a tricolour featuring three equally-sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form has been in use since 18 June 1946 and was formally adopted on 1 January 1948.
The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cispadane Republic in 1797, which supplanted Milan after Napoleon's victorious army crossed Italy in 1796. The colours chosen by the Cispadane Republic were red and white, which were the colours of the recently conquered flag of Milan; and green, which was the colour of the uniform of the Milanese civic guard. During this time, many small French-proxy republics of Jacobin inspiration supplanted the ancient absolute Italian states and almost all, with variants of colour, used flags characterised by three bands of equal size, clearly inspired by the French model of 1790.
Some have attributed particular values to the colours, and a common interpretation is that the green represents the country's plains and the hills; white, the snow-capped Alps; and red, blood spilt in the Wars of Italian Independence and Unification. A more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, and the red represents charity; this references the three theological virtues.
The tricolour was reportedly used for the first time on 13–14 November 1794 on a cockade worn by a group of students of the University of Bologna, led by Luigi Zamboni and Giovanni Battista De Rolandis, who attempted to plot a popular riot to topple the Catholic government of Bologna, a city which was part of the Papal States at the time. The law students defined themselves as "patriots" and wore tricolour cockades to signal they were inspired by Jacobin revolutionary ideals, but modified them to distinguish themselves from the French. The chosen colours were white and red since those are the colours of the flag of Bologna, some scholars contend green was added only for the event to give it a more ideological effect; not all agree that the cockades used by the Bologna plotters actually had three colours, since a myth about that may have been created a year later. On 18 May 1796 a cockade with those colours commemorating the Bologna riots was reportedly presented to Napoleon Bonaparte in Milan, who decided banners with same colours would be carried by the Milan Civic Guard, of the Lombard Legion and the National Guard.
The first official tricolore italiano, or Italian tricolour, was adopted on 7 January 1797, when the XIVth Parliament of the Cispadane Republic, on the proposal of deputy Giuseppe Compagnoni of Lugo, decreed "to make universal the ... standard or flag of three colours, green, white, and red ..." This was probably because the Legione Lombarda had carried banners of red, white (from the flag of Milan), and green (from the uniform of the civic guard), and the same colours were later adopted in the banners of the Legione Italiana, which was formed by soldiers coming from Emilia and Romagna. The flag was a horizontal square with red uppermost and, at the heart of the white fess, an emblem composed of a garland of laurel decorated with a trophy of arms and four arrows, representing the four provinces that formed the Republic. However, many Italians believe that the tricolore, or three-coloured flag, represents hope (green), faith (white), and love (red)- apt words to describe such a bel paese, "beautiful country".
1797 flag of the Cispadane Republic
1798 flag of the Cisalpine Republic
1802 flag of the Italian Republic
1805 flag of the Kingdom of Italy
The Cispadane Republic and the Transpadane Republic, which had itself been using a vertical Italian tricolour from 1796, merged into the Cisalpine Republic and adopted the vertical square tricolour without badge in 1798. The flag was maintained until 1802, when it was renamed the Napoleonic Italian Republic, and a new flag was adopted, this time with a red field carrying a green square within a white lozenge.
In 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca came under French influence and adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost; this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed his sister, Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and Piombino. This affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace.
In the same year, after Napoleon had crowned himself first French Emperor, the Italian Republic was transformed into the first Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, or Italico, under his direct rule. The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that of the Republic in rectangular form, charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use until the abdication of Napoleon in 1814.
Kingdom of Italy
|Use||Civil flag and ensign|
|Adopted||1861 (Sardinia 1851)|
|Design||A vertical tricolour of green, white, and red, defaced with the arms of Savoy|
Variant flag of the Kingdom of Italy
|Use||State flag, state and naval ensign|
|Adopted||1861 (Sardinia 1851)|
|Design||A vertical tricolour of green, white, and red, defaced with the arms of Savoy and crown|
Variant flag of the Kingdom of Italy
|Adopted||1861 (Sardinia 1848)|
|Design||A defaced Italian tricolour|
Between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy (except for Venetia, Rome, Trento and Trieste, known as Italia irredenta, which were united with the rest of Italy in 1866, 1870, and 1918 respectively); this period of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the tricolore became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom and independence.
The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted as a war flag by the Kingdom of Sardinia–Piedmont army on 1848. In his Proclamation to the Lombard-Venetian people, Charles Albert said "... in order to show more clearly with exterior signs the commitment to Italian unification, We want that Our troops ... have the Savoy shield placed on the Italian tricolour flag." As the arms, blazoned gules a cross argent, mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour, although this does not conform to the heraldic rule of tincture. The rectangular civil and state variants were adopted in 1851.
In the same year, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany became constitutional and dropped the Austrian flag, with Austria–Lorraine great coat of arms, in favour of the defaced Italian tricolour with simplified arms. It is worthy of note, however, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of Austria, the opponent of Italian unification. In 1859, the Granducato officially ceased to exist, being joined to the Duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which used the undefaced tricolour until it was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia the following year.
The flag of the Constitutional Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, a white field charged with the coats of arms of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Two Sicilies, and Granada, was modified by Ferdinand II through the addition of a red and green border. This flag lasted from 3 April 1848 until 19 May 1849. The Provisional Government of Sicily, which lasted from 12 January 1848 to 15 May 1849, adopted the Italian tricolour, defaced with the trinacria, or triskelion.
1848–1849 flag of the Constitutional Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, with Bourbon coat of arms
1848–1849 flag of the Provisional Government of Sicily
In the same year, the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia revolted against the Austrian Empire in the Five Days of Milan, forming the Provisional Government of Lombardy on 22 March 1848 and Provisional Government of Venice, the so-called "Republic of San Marco", a day later. The flags that they adopted, marked the link to Italian independence and unification efforts; the former, the Italian tricolour undefaced, and the latter, charged with the winged lion of St. Mark, from the flag of the Most Serene Republic, on a white canton. These lasted until 6 and 24 August 1849 respectively.
In 1849, the new Roman Republic adopted an Italian tricolour, sent from Venice, bearing the legend DIO E POPOLO in red capital letters. This lasted for four months, while the Papal States of the Church was in abeyance.
In 1860, the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was again modified to the defaced Italian tricolour with the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies coat of arms. Adopted on 21 June 1860, this lasted until 17 March 1861, when the Two Sicilies was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, after its defeat in the Expedition of the Thousand led by Giuseppe Garibaldi.
On 15 April 1861, the flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia was declared the flag of the newly formed Kingdom of Italy. This Italian tricolour, with the armorial bearings of the former Royal House of Savoy was the first national flag and lasted in that form for 85 years until the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
1848–49 flag of the Provisional Government of Venice
1849 state and civil flag of the Roman Republic
In 1926, the Fascist government attempted to have the Italian national flag redesigned by having the fasces, the symbol used by the Fascist movement, included in the flag. However, this attempt by the Fascist government to change the Italian flag to incorporate the fasces was stopped by strong opposition to the proposal by Italian monarchists. Afterwards, the Fascist government raised the national tricolour flag along with a Fascist black flag in public ceremonies.
Italian Social Republic
|Use||Civil flag and ensign|
|Design||A vertical tricolour of green, white, and red.|
Variant flag of the Italian Social Republic
|Design||A vertical tricolour of green, white, and red, charged with a silver hawk clutching horizontally placed fasci littori.|
The civil and state flag of the short-lived Fascist state in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (1943–1945), or "Republic of Salò" as it was commonly known, was identical to the flag of the modern Italian Republic, as both republics used the previous flag of the Kingdom of Italy with the coat of arms of Savoy removed. This flag was rarely seen, however, while the war flag, charged with a silver/black eagle clutching horizontally placed fascio littorio (literally, bundles of the lictors), was very common in propaganda. Italian fascism derived its name from the fasces, which symbolised imperium, or power and authority, in ancient Rome. Roman legions had carried the aquila, or eagle, as signa militaria.
The Italian tricolour, which had been in use since 18 June 1946, was officially adopted in its current form on 1 January 1948, with the promulgation of the republican constitution and the end of the reign of the House of Savoy. Article 12 of the Italian Constitution, approved by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, states:
The flag of the Republic is the Italian tricolour: green, white, and red, in three vertical bands of equal dimensions.
The Italian naval ensign comprises the national flag defaced with the arms of the Marina Militare; the Marina Mercantile (and private citizens at sea) use the civil ensign, differenced by the absence of the mural crown and the lion holding open the gospel, bearing the inscription PAX TIBI MARCE EVANGELISTA MEVS, instead of a sword. The shield is quartered, symbolic of the four great thalassocracies of Italy, the repubbliche marinare of Venice (represented by the lion passant, top left), Genoa (top right), Amalfi (bottom left), and Pisa (represented by their respective crosses); the rostrata crown was proposed by Admiral Cavagnari in 1939 to acknowledge the Navy's origins in ancient Rome.
In 2003, a state ensign was created specifically for non-military vessels engaged in non-commercial government service; this defaces the Italian tricolour with the national coat of arms. Since 1914, the Italian Air Force have also used a roundel of concentric rings in the colours of the tricolour as aircraft marking; substituted, from 1923 to 1943, by encircled fasces. The Frecce Tricolori, officially known as the 313º Gruppo Addestramento Acrobatico, is its aerobatic demonstration team.
The President of the Italian Republic has an official standard. The current version is based on the square flag of the Napoleonic Italian Republic, on a field of blue, charged with the coat of arms in gold. The first version of the standard, adopted in 1965 and used until 1990 was very similar to the current version only without the red, white and green. The emblem was also much larger. This version of the standard was replaced in 1990 by then President Francesco Cossiga. Cossiga's new version of the standard contained the same Royal Blue background but now with a squared Italian national flag in the centre and no emblem. This version was short lived however as only two years later it was replaced by the 1965 standard, only with a smaller emblem. This version lasted until 2000 from where it was replaced by the current version.
After the Republic was proclaimed, the national flag was provisionally adopted as distinguishing flag of the head of state in place of the royal standard. On the initiative of the Ministry of Defence, a project was prepared in 1965 to adopt a distinct flag. Opportunity suggested the most natural solution was the Italian tricolour defaced with the coat of arms; however, under conditions of poor visibility, this could easily be mistaken for the standard of the President of the United States of Mexico, which is also that country's national flag. The standard is kept in the custody of the Commander of the Reggimento Corazzieri of the Arma dei Carabinieri, along with the war flag (assigned to Regiment in 1878).
The Italian Constitution does not make provision for a Vice-President. However, separate insignia for the President of the Senate, in exercise of duties as acting head of state under Article 86, was created in 1986. This has a white square on the blue field, charged with the arms of the Republic in silver. Distinguishing insignia for former Presidents of the Republic was created in 2001; a tricolour in the style of the Presidential standard, it is emblazoned with the Cypher of Honour of the President of the Republic.
In 1927, Mussolini adopted a personal standard consisting of fasces on a Savoy blue field with a yellow border; this was abolished in 1943. Firstly in 2001, and then again from 2008, Silvio Berlusconi adopted a similar standard of the office of Prime Minister, this time the coat of arms proper on a darker blue field with double yellow border.
The law, implementing Article 12 of the Constitution and following of Italy's membership of the European Union, lays down the general provisions governing the use and display of the flag of the Italian Republic and the flag of the European Union (in its territory).
There are no international conventions on flying the flag, but protocol adopted by a large number of countries have such similarities as to suggest lines of commonly accepted practice. In general two areas of exposure are identified: national and international events. In both cases it is generally followed practice that national flags displayed in a group should be of equal size and each hoisted on its own flagstaff, of equal height, or on separate ropes if fixed on yardarm. The flag is flown from sunrise to sunset, except in case of bad weather; exhibition at night is permitted provided it is adequately illuminated. The flag is raised and lowered vividly and with solemnity; it is always treated with dignity and should never be allowed to touch the ground or water. Vertical hoist is transformationally identical to horizontal hoist (i.e. the flag is rotated 90 degrees).
When displayed alongside other flags, the national flag takes the position of honour; it is raised first and lowered last. Other national flags should be arranged in alphabetical order. Where two (or more than three) flags appear together, the national flag should be placed to the right (left of the observer); in a display of three flags in line, the national flag occupies the central position. The European flag is also flown from government buildings on a daily basis. In the presence of a foreign visitor belonging to a member state, this takes precedence over the Italian flag. As a sign of mourning, flags flown externally shall be lowered to half-mast; two black ribbons may be attached to those otherwise displayed. Traditionally, the flag may be decorated with a golden fringe surrounding the perimeter.
Pantone matching system
In 2003, after 206 years of service, the authentic colours of the Italian tricolour were specified by the government, but later amended after hot debate on the chosen shades. As of 23 September 2006[update], the official Pantone textile colours defined by law (and their rendered values in other colour spaces) are:
Description Number RGB CMYK HSV Hex Fern Green 17-6153 TC 0-140- 69 100-0-100- 45 149-100-057 #008C45 Bright White 11-0601 TC 244-245-240 0- 0- 0- 0 120-000-095 #F4F5F0 Flame Scarlet 18-1662 TC 205-33- 42 0-100-100- 0 356-079-081 #CD212A
This approach has been criticised by the Centro Italiano Studi Vessillologici as a "fundamental error". However, it applies only to flags produced on polyester fabric bunting. Other materials should produce the same chromatic results obtained on the sample kept in the State Ceremonial Department of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, as well as in every Prefecture and Italian diplomatic mission abroad.
- Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana Art. 12, 22 dicembre 1947, pubblicata nella Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 298 del 27 dicembre 1947 edizione straordinaria (published in the Official Gazette [of the Italian Republic] No. 298 of 27 December 1947 extraordinary edition) "La bandiera della Repubblica è il tricolore italiano: verde, bianco, e rosso, a tre bande verticali di eguali dimensioni"
- "The Italian Flag (Bandiera d'Italia)". lagazzettaitaliana.com. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
- Dal discorso di Giosuè Carducci, tenuto il 7 gennaio 1897 a Reggio Emilia per celebrare il 1° centenario della nascita del Tricolore (from the speech by Giosuè Carducci, held on 7 January 1897 in Reggio Emilia to celebrate the 1st centenary of the birth of the Tricolour), Comitato Guglielmo Marconi International (retrieved 5 October 2008)
- "Mostra Giovan Battista De Rolandis e il Tricolore". 150.provincia.asti.it. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- Villa Claudio, I simboli della Repubblica: la bandiera tricolore, il canto degli italiani, l'emblema, Comune di Vanzago, 2010, SBN IT\ICCU\LO1\1355389, p. 12
- De Rolandis Ito, Origine del tricolore – Da Bologna a Torino capitale d'Italia, Torino, Il Punto – Piemonte in Bancarella, 1996, ISBN 88-86425-30-9, p. 18
- "Il significato dei tre colori della nostra Bandiera Nazionale". radiomarconi.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- The tri-coloured standard.Getting to Know Italy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (retrieved 5 October 2008) Archived 23 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- On 11 October 1796 Napoleon wrote to the French Directory|Directorate]], "Les couleurs nationales qu'ils ont adoptées sont le vert, le blanc et le rouge" (the national colours they have adopted are green, white, and red), Corr. Nap. II, No. 1085; see Frasca, Francesco Les Italiens dans l'Armée napoléonienne: Des légions aux Armées de la République italienne et du Royaume d'Italie Etudes napoléoniennes, Tome IV (pp. 374–396) Levallois: Centre d'études napoléoniennes, 1988
- Facts and History of Italy
- "Well, Prince, so Genoa and Lucca are now just family estates of the Bonapartes," facsimile of the 1922 English translation by Aylmer and Louise Maude, Project Gutenburg (retrieved 5 October 2008)
- Regio decreto del 25 marzo 1860; see 1860 — La nuova bandiera dei Corpi di Fanteria e Cavalleria Uniformi e Tradizioni, Ministero della Difesa (retrieved 19 January 2013). Note No. 41 of 16 March 1863 (published in the Official Military Journal) is, in effect, an amendment to the 1860 decree with regard to fortresses, towers and military establishments; see 1863 — Bandiere per le fortezze, torri e stabilimenti militari Uniformi e Tradizioni, Ministero della Difesa (retrieved 22 January 2013)
- Ghisi, Enrico Il tricolore italiano (1796–1870) Milano: Anonima per l'Arte della Stampa, 1931; see Gay, H. Nelson in The American Historical Review Vol. 37 No. 4 (pp. 750–751), July 1932
- "Per viemmeglio dimostrare con segni esteriori il sentimento dell'unione italiana vogliamo che le Nostre truppe ... portino lo scudo di Savoia sovrapposto alla bandiera tricolore italiana." See Lawrence, D.H. (ed. Philip Crumpton) Movements in European History (p. 230) Cambridge University Press, 1989 for an overview
- Lo Statuto Albertino Art. 77, dato in Torino addì quattro del mese di marzo l'anno del Signore mille ottocento quarantotto, e del Regno Nostro il decimo ottavo (given in Turin on the fourth of the month of March in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, and of Our Reign the eighteenth)
- Lawrence, op. cit. (p. 229)
- Rostenberg, Leona, "Margaret Fuller's Roman Diary," The Journal of Modern History Vol. 12 No. 2 (pp. 209–220), June 1940
- Scirocco, Alfonso (trans. Allan Cameron) Garibaldi: Citizen of the World (p. 279) Princeton University Press, 2007
- Regio decreto n. 2072 del 24 settembre 1923, convertito nella legge n. 2264 del 24 dicembre 1923
- Mack Smith, Denis Italy and its Monarchy (p. 265) Yale University Press, 1989
- Gentile, Emilio The sacralization of politics in fascist Italy (p. 119) Harvard University Press, 1996
- Foggia della bandiera nazionale e della bandiera di combattimento delle Forze Armate decreto legislativo del Duce della Repubblica Sociale Italiana e Capo del Governo n. 141 del 28 gennaio 1944, XXII EF (GU 107 del 6 maggio 1944 XXII EF)
- Regio decreto del 28 novembre 1880. The Gagliardetto dei Reali Principi was the same design with a swallowtail instead of a crown in each corner
- Decreto legislativo del capo provvisorio dello stato n. 1305 del 9 novembre 1947 (GU 275 del 29 novembre 1947)
- La Bandiera della Marina Militare Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Le nostre tradizioni, Ministero della Difesa (retrieved 5 October 2008)
- Ratifica ed esecuzione del Memorandum di Intesa tra il Ministero della difesa della Repubblica italiana e il Comando Supremo delle Forze Alleate in Atlantico riguardo alla bandiera dell’unità per ricerche costiere della NATO, con annesso 1, firmato a Roma il 15 maggio 2001 ed a Norfolk il 20 giugno 2001 Legge n. 321 del 24 ottobre 2003 (GU 271 del 21 novembre 2003)
- Stendardo del presidente della Repubblica Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica del 9 ottobre 2000 (GU 241 del 14 ottobre 2000)
- Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica del 9 ottobre 2000 gazzette.comune.jesi.an.it
- Foggia ed uso dell'emblema dello Stato Decreto legislativo n. 535 del 5 maggio 1948 (GU 122 del 28 maggio 1948 suppl. ord.)
- Whitney., Smith, (1980). Flags and arms across the world. Smith, Whitney. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 110. ISBN 9780070590946. OCLC 4957064.
- web, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica – Servizio sistemi informatici – reparto. "I Simboli della Repubblica – lo Stendardo" [The Symbols of the Republic – the Standard]. Il Presidente (in Italian). Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "Previous Presidential Standard (1965–1990,1992–2000)". flagspot.net. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Foglio d'ordini del 11 febbraio 1948
- Foglio d'ordini n. 76 del 22 settembre 1965; Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica del 22 marzo 1990 e del 29 giugno 1992
- Lo Stendardo Presidenziale I Corazzieri, Arma dei Carabinieri (retrieved 5 October 2008)
- "Le funzioni del Presidente della Repubblica, in ogni caso che egli non possa adempierle, sono esercitate dal Presidente del Senato" (the functions of the President of the Republic, in all cases in which he cannot carry them out, shall be exercised by the President of the Senate)
- Insegna distintiva degli ex Presidenti della Repubblica Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica del 17 maggio 2001 (GU 117 del 22 maggio 2001)
- Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica n. 19/N del 14 ottobre 1986
- Regio decreto del 22 aprile 1879. After 1893, the proportions were altered from 1:1 to 5:6
- Celebrazione nazionale del bicentenario della prima bandiera nazionale Legge n. 671 del 31 dicembre 1996 (GU 1 del 2 gennaio 1997)
- Disposizioni generali sull'uso della bandiera della Repubblica italiana e di quella dell'Unione europea Legge n. 22 del 5 febbraio 1998 (GU 37 del 14 febbraio 1998) e Regolamento recante disciplina dell'uso delle bandiere della Repubblica italiana e dell'Unione europea da parte delle amministrazioni dello Stato e degli enti pubblicie Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica n. 121 del 7 aprile 2000 (GU 112 del 16 maggio 2000)
- Znamierowski, Alfred The World Encyclopedia of Flags London: Lorenz Books, 1999
- The Rules of Protocol regarding national holidays and the use of the Italian flag Archived 19 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Department of Protocol (retrieved 5 October 2008)
- Circolare del sottosegretario alla Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri Gianni Letta del 18 settembre 2002 e circolare del segretario generale alla Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri Antonio Catricalà del 17 gennaio 2003
- "Italian opposition in flap over flag". BBC. 28 April 2003.
- Tricolore «sbagliato» alla Camera Corriere della Sera, 29 April 2003
- Circolare della Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri n. UCE 3.3.1/14545/1 del 2 June 2004
- Disposizioni generali in materia di cerimoniale e di precedenza tra le cariche pubbliche Art. 31 (Definizione cromatica dei colori della bandiera della Repubblica) Decreto del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri 16 April 2008 (G.U. n. 107 of 8 March 2008)
- The earlier specifications are given in Manuale di utilizzo del logotipo Archived 21 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine Ministero delle Politiche Agricole, Alimentarie e Forestali (retrieved 6 February 2011)
- Martinelli, Alessandro La percezione intellettuale del colore SocialDesignZine, 19 gennaio 2004
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flags of Italy.|
- Italy at Flags of the World
- ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) La Bandiera degli italiani Presidenza della Repubblica, Palazzo del Quirinale
- ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) Centro Italiano Studi Vessillologici (Italian Centre for the Study of Vexillology)