Florida's 1st congressional district
|Florida's 1st congressional district|
Florida's first congressional district. Since January 3, 2013.
|Area||4,759 sq mi (12,330 km2)|
Florida's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Florida, covering the state's western Panhandle. It includes all of Escambia, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Walton counties and portions of Holmes county. The district is anchored in Pensacola and also includes the large military bedroom communities and tourist destinations of Navarre and Fort Walton Beach and stretches along the Emerald Coast. The district, as ranked by the Cook Partisan Voting Index, is the most Republican district in Florida and the 15th most in the United States.
The district encompasses the western part of the Florida Panhandle, in the extreme western portion of the state, stretching from Pensacola and the Alabama border east to include Walton, Holmes, and Washington counties.
Most of the territory now in the 1st District had been the 3rd District from 1903 to 1963; however, it has been numbered as the 1st District since then. It cast aside its Democratic roots far sooner than most of the other areas of the state. It has not supported a Democrat for President since John F. Kennedy in 1960. In 1964, Republican Barry Goldwater carried the district by such a large margin that it nearly pushed Florida's electoral votes into the Republican column. It has continued to vote for Republicans by very wide margins, with the only exception being 1976, where Gerald Ford won a narrow 50-49 victory over Jimmy Carter. Nonetheless, it usually continued to elect conservative Democrats at the state and local level. Well into the 1980s, the district's congressmen and state lawmakers only faced "sacrificial lamb" Republican challengers on the occasions they faced any opposition at all. As late as 1992, for instance, Bob Graham easily carried the district with 54 percent of the vote--more than double Bill Clinton's total in the district.
This changed with the Republican Revolution of 1994. That year, Joe Scarborough became the first Republican to represent the Panhandle since Reconstruction. This change was more a result of eight-term conservative Democrat Earl Hutto retiring than of a Republican upsurge. It had been taken for granted that Hutto would be succeeded by a Republican once he retired, particularly when he was nearly defeated in 1990 and 1992. Republicans also swept most of the district's seats in the legislature. Since then, the district has become arguably the most Republican district in Florida, with Republicans dominating every level of government; indeed, in much of the district, there are no elected Democrats above the county level. No Democratic candidate for the seat has tallied more than 40 percent of the vote since Hutto's retirement. John McCain received 67% of the vote in this district in 2008.
The district's conservative bent is not limited to the national level. It also rejects Democrats at the state level as well; Graham is the last Democrat to win the district in a statewide race. By the turn of the millennium, there were almost no elected Democrats left above the county level.
The area comprising the 1st District has maintained a large military presence ever since John Quincy Adams persuaded Spain to sell Florida to the United States in 1819, in part to gain a deepwater port at Pensacola. The U.S. Air Force also has a large presence in Eglin Air Force Base, which is economically important to the district. Slightly under 14,000 people are employed at the base, which is one of the largest air bases in the world and has approximately 100,000 square miles (260,000 km2) of airspace stretching over the Gulf of Mexico to the Florida Keys. Hurlburt Field is an auxiliary field at Eglin AFB and is the location of the Air Force Special Operations Command. Eglin AFB spreads over three counties. Pensacola Naval Air Station was the first Navy base devoted to the specific purpose of aviation, and is the home of the Blue Angels. Saufley Field, used for training, is slightly north of Pensacola NAS.
The 1st gives its incumbents very long tenures in Washington; only seven men have represented the district and its predecessors since 1933.
|Election results from statewide races|
|1992||President||Bush 51.2 - 25.7%|
|Senator||Graham 54.5 - 45.5%|
|1994||Senator||Mack 80.9 - 19.1%|
|Governor||Bush 60.8 - 39.2%|
|Secretary of State||Mortham 64.1 - 35.9%|
|Attorney General||Ferro 52.8 - 47.2%|
|Comptroller||Milligan 59.1 - 40.9%|
|Treasurer||Ireland 59.7 - 40.3%|
|Education Commissioner||Brogan 64.1 - 35.9%|
|Agriculture Commissioner||Smith 55.6 - 44.4%|
|1996||President||Dole 59.2 - 31.0%|
|1998||Senator||Crist 51.6 - 48.4%|
|Governor||Bush 71.4 - 28.6%|
|Secretary of State||Harris 65.0 - 35.0%|
|Attorney General||Bludworth 57.0 - 43.0%|
|Comptroller||Milligan 71.1 - 28.9%|
|Treasurer||Ireland 58.8 - 41.2%|
|Education Commissioner||Gallagher 67.2 - 32.8%|
|Agriculture Commissioner||Faircloth 54.7 - 45.3%|
|2000||President||Bush 67.7 - 29.8%|
|Senator||McCollum 64.7 - 35.3%|
|Treasurer||Gallagher 73.1 - 26.9%|
|Education Commissioner||Crist 67.6 - 32.4%|
|2004||President||Bush 72 - 28%|
|2008||President||McCain 67 - 32%|
|2012||President||Romney 69 - 31%|
|2016||President||Trump 68 - 28%|
|Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of May 4, 2017|
|No Party Affiliation||114,431||21.20%|
List of members representing the district
|Electoral history||Geographical boundaries|
|District created||March 4, 1875|
William J. Purman
|Republican||March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1877
Robert H. M. Davidson
|Democratic||March 4, 1877 –
March 3, 1891
Stephen R. Mallory
|Democratic||March 4, 1891 –
March 3, 1895
Stephen M. Sparkman
|Democratic||March 4, 1895 –
March 3, 1917
Herbert J. Drane
|Democratic||March 4, 1917 –
March 3, 1933
J. Hardin Peterson
|Democratic||March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1951
Chester B. McMullen
|Democratic||January 3, 1951 –
January 3, 1953
Courtney W. Campbell
|Democratic||January 3, 1953 –
January 3, 1955
William C. Cramer
|Republican||January 3, 1955 –
January 3, 1963
|Redistricted to the 12th district|
|Democratic||January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1979
|Redistricted from the 3rd district.
Earl Dewitt Hutto
|Democratic||January 3, 1979 –
January 3, 1995
|Republican||January 3, 1995 –
September 5, 2001
|Vacant||September 5, 2001 –
October 16, 2001
|Republican||October 16, 2001 –
January 3, 2017
|Elected to finish Scarborough's term.|
|Republican||January 3, 2017 –
2001 (Special Election)
|Independent||John G. Ralls, Jr.||5,115||6.31|
|Democratic||Mark S. Coutu||72,506||23%|
|No party||Joe Roberts||62,340||31%|
|Democratic||James E. Bryan||98,797||30%|
|Independent||John E. Krause||18,253||9%|
|Democratic||James E. Bryan||92,961||27%|
|No party||William Cleave Drummond II||17||0.0%%|
|Democratic||James E. Bryan||54,976||23%|
|No party||Mark Wichern||15,281||7%|
|Republican||Matt Gaetz (Incumbent)||216,189||67.06%|
|Democratic||Jennifer M. Zimmerman||106,199||32.94%|
Living former representatives
As of January 2018[update], there are three former members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Florida's 1st congressional district who are currently living at this time.
|Representative||Term in office||Date of birth (and age)|
|Earl Dewitt Hutto||1979–1995||May 12, 1926|
|Joe Scarborough||1995–2001||April 9, 1963|
|Jeff Miller||2001–2017||June 27, 1959|
- "Congressional Plan--SC14-1905 (Ordered by The Florida Supreme Court, 2-December-2015)" (PDF). Florida Senate Committee on Reapportionment. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "October 16, 2001 Special General, Congress 1 & House 1". Florida Department of State Division of Elections. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present