Foreign relations of Kyrgyzstan
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
While Kyrgyzstan was initially determined to stay in the ruble zone, the stringent conditions set forth by the Russian Government prompted Kyrgyzstan to introduce its own currency, the som, in May 1993. Kyrgyzstan's withdrawal from the ruble zone was done with little prior notification and initially caused tensions in the region. Both Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan temporarily suspended trade, and Uzbekistan even introduced restrictions tantamount to economic sanctions. Both nations feared an influx of rubles and an increase in inflation. Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan's hostility toward Kyrgyzstan was short-lived, and the three nations signed an agreement in January 1994 creating an economic union. This led to the relaxation of border restrictions between the nations the following month. Kyrgyzstan also has contributed to the CIS peacekeeping forces in Tajikistan.
Turkey has sought to capitalize on its cultural and ethnic links to the region and has found Kyrgyzstan receptive to cultivating bilateral relations. The Kyrgyz Republic also has experienced a dramatic increase in trade with the People's Republic of China, its southern neighbor. Kyrgyzstan has been active in furthering regional cooperation, such as joint military exercises with Uzbek and Kazakh troops.
In January 1999, a new OSCE office opened in Bishkek; on February 18, 2000 the OSCE announced that an additional office would open in Osh to assist Bishkek in carrying out its work. Kyrgyzstan is a member of the OSCE, the CIS, and the United Nations.
Kyrgyzstan is a limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption. There is a limited government eradication program. Kyrgyzstan is used increasingly as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia and Western Europe from Southwest Asia.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Argentina||6 October 1992||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on October 6, 1992.
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.
|China||See China–Kyrgyzstan relations
As of 1996, relations between both nations were an area of substantial uncertainty for the government in Bishkek. The free-trade zone in Naryn attracted large numbers of Chinese businesspeople, who came to dominate most of the republic's import and export of small goods. Most of these trades are in barter conducted by ethnic Kyrgyz or Kazakhs who are Chinese citizens. The Kyrgyzstani government has expressed alarm over the numbers of Chinese who are moving into Naryn and other parts of Kyrgyzstan, but no preventive measures had been taken as of 1996.
|Croatia||23 December 1996||
|Cyprus||20 February 1992||
|Dominica||18 October 2016||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on October 18, 2016.
|Greece||1992||See Greece-Kyrgyzstan relations
|India||18 March 1992||See Kyrgyzstan–India relations
Since the independence of Kyrgyz Republic on 31 August 1991, India was among the first to establish bilateral diplomatic relations on 18 March 1992; the resident Mission of India was set up in 1994. Political ties with the Kyrgyz Republic have been traditionally warm and friendly. The Kyrgyz leaderships have been largely supportive of India's stand on Kashmir and have welcomed the ongoing peace process. Kyrgyzstan also supports India's bid for permanent seat at the United Nations Security Council and India's role in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). India also has strong educational ties with the country. The Defense Minister Omuraliyev was enthusiastic about the prospects of military cooperation in a radio interview with Free Europe in September 2013. "Many are skeptical, thinking that Kyrgyzstan and India can't have mutual interests in military relations.... But we have had a very close partnership in the defense sphere." He specified foreign language (presumably English) training, military medicine and preparing for United Nations peacekeeping missions as specific areas of cooperation.
|Iran||See Iran–Kyrgyzstan relations
Iran–Kyrgyzstan relations are foreign and diplomatic relations between Kyrgyzstan and Iran. Bilateral relations between Iran and Kyrgyzstan are more or less even and somewhat relaxed. On September 12, 2013, Iran's President Hassan Rouhani expressed political will to enhance relations with Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
Both countries established diplomatic relations in March 1992.
|Japan||26 January 1992|
|Kazakhstan||See Kazakhstan–Kyrgyzstan relations
Bilateral relationships between the countries are very strong and Kyrgyz and Kazakh are very close in terms of language, culture and religion. Kyrgyz-Kazakh relationships have always been friendly and economic and other formal unifications of two countries have been greeted with strong appreciation since the two nations have a lot in common. On Apr. 26, 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan signed an agreement to create an "International Supreme Council". This historic event took place during an official visit of the Kazakh president to the Kyrgyzstan capital, Bishkek.
|Latvia||18 March 1993||
|Lesotho||21 July 2017||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 21, 2017.
|Lithuania||3 July 1992||
|Malaysia||See Kyrgyzstan–Malaysia relations|
|Malta||19 February 1993||
|Mexico||14 January 1992|
|Moldova||4 June 1992|
|Pakistan||20 December 1991||See Kyrgyzstan–Pakistan relations|
|Romania||15 June 1992||
|Russia||See Kyrgyzstan–Russia relations
Whereas the other Central Asian republics have sometimes complained of Russian interference, Kyrgyzstan has more often wished for more attention and support from Moscow than it has been able to obtain. For all the financial support that the world community has offered, Kyrgyzstan remains economically dependent on Russia, both directly and through Kazakhstan. In early 1995, Askar Akayev, the then President of Kyrgyzstan, attempted to sell Russian companies controlling shares in the republic's twenty-nine largest industrial plants, an offer that Russia refused.
|Solomon Islands||December 2014||
Both countries established diplomatic relations in December 2014.
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.
|South Korea||31 January 1992||
The Republic of Korea and Kyrgyzstan have had official relations since 31 January 1992. On the sidelines of the 69th session of the UN General Assembly, Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se met with his Kyrgyz counterpart Yerlan Abdyldaev on September 26. In the meeting, the two diplomats discussed matters of mutual concern including ways to boost high-level exchanges to step up substantive cooperation and work together on the international stage. The two sides shared the view that their countries have seen their bilateral relations move forward in diverse fields since the visit of Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambayev to the Republic of Korea in November 2013. The meeting resulted in an agreement to increase high-level exchanges in order to further enhance friendship and cooperation between the two countries.
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1993.
|Tajikistan||See Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan relations
Kyrgyzstan-Tajikistan relations have been tense. Refugees and antigovernment fighters in Tajikistan have crossed into Kyrgyzstan several times, even taking hostages. Kyrgyzstan attempted to assist in brokering an agreement between contesting Tajikistani forces in October 1992 but without success. Askar Akayev later joined presidents Islam Karimov and Nursultan Nazarbayev in sending a joint intervention force to support Tajikistan's president Imomali Rahmonov against insurgents, but the Kyrgyzstani parliament delayed the mission of its small contingent for several months until late spring 1993. In mid-1995 Kyrgyzstani forces had the responsibility of sealing a small portion of the Tajikistan border near Panj from Tajikistani rebel forces.
|Turkey||16 December 1991||
Turkey was the first country to recognize the independence of Kyrgyzstan on 16 December 1991. Diplomatic relations were established on 29 January 1992. The Turkish Embassy in Bishkek and the Kyrgyz Embassy in Ankara were opened in 1992. Turkish investments occupy the fifth place in the country. In 1997, Turkey and Kyrgyzstan signed "The Eternal Friendship and Cooperation Agreement".
|United Kingdom||See Kyrgyzstan–United Kingdom relations
|United States||See Kyrgyzstan–United States relations
The U.S. government provides humanitarian assistance, non-lethal military assistance, and assistance to support economic and political reforms. It also has supported the Kyrgyz Republic's requests for assistance from international organizations.
The United States assisted the Kyrgyz Republic accede to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 1998. U.S. assistance aids the Kyrgyz Republic in implementing necessary economic, health sector, and educational reforms, and supports economic development and conflict resolution in the Fergana Valley. (See also American Chamber of Commerce in Kyrgyzstan.)
|Uzbekistan||See Kyrgyzstan–Uzbekistan relations
Uzbekistan informs southern Kyrgyzstan both economically and politically, based on the large Uzbek population in that region of Kyrgyzstan and on economic and geographic conditions. Much of Kyrgyzstan depends on Uzbekistan for natural gas; on several occasions, Karimov has achieved political ends by shutting pipelines or by adjusting terms of delivery. In a number of television appearances broadcast in the Osh and Jalal-Abad provinces of Kyrgyzstan, Karimov has addressed Akayev with considerable condescension; Akayev, in turn, has been highly deferential to his neighbor. Although Uzbekistan has not shown overt expansionist tendencies, the Kyrgyz government is acutely aware of the implications of Karimov's assertions that he is responsible for the well-being of all Uzbeks, regardless of their nation of residence.
- LLC, Helix Consulting. "Kyrgyzstan - Bilateral Relations - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia". www.mfa.am.
- LLC, Helix Consulting. "Kyrgyzstan - Embassies - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia". www.mfa.am.
- LLC, Helix Consulting. "Kyrgyzstan - Consulates - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia". www.mfa.am.
- LLC, Helix Consulting. "Kyrgyzstan - By country - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia". www.mfa.am.
- "Kyrgyzstan". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
- Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada. "Canada - Kyrgyz Republic Relations". GAC.
- Martha Brill Olcott. "Russia". Kyrgyzstan: a country study (Glenn E. Curtis, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (March 1996). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Martha Brill Olcott. "Central Asian Neighbors". Kyrgyzstan: a country study (Glenn E. Curtis, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (March 1996). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "MVEP • Date of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". www.mvep.hr.
- "MVEP • Overview of Bilateral Treaties of the Republic of Croatia by Country". www.mvep.hr.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2017-04-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Kyrgyzstan - Ministry of Foreign Affairs". vm.ee.
- "საქართველოს საგარეო საქმეთა სამინისტრო - ყაზახეთის რესპუბლიკა". mfa.gov.ge.
- "Tajikistan". Greece. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
Greece and Tajikistan established diplomatic relations in 1992. The stabilization of the country following the civil war and its increasing presence as part of the international community are expected to offer an opportunity for substantially developing its bilateral relations with Greece.
- "Greece, Kyrgyzstan sign bilateral accords". ANA. 2004. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
Greece and Kyrgyzstan on Monday signed three bilateral accords in the sectors of air transports, tourism and diplomacy, during a meeting between President of the Republic Costis Stephanopoulos and his Kyrgyz counterpart Askare Askayev, who is in Athens on a state visit.
- "Kyrgyz president in Greece". BBC. November 1, 2004. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev left for Greece on an official visit on 31 October
- Kyrgyzstan: The Greek Community. Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "General Information". General Secretariat For Greeks Abroad. Archived from the original on 16 July 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Kyrgyzstan, Greece sign cooperation accords". BBC. 2004-11-01. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev met Greek President Konstandinos Stefanopoulos in a narrow circle in Athens as part of an official visit to Greece on 1 November 2004. There was an exchange of views on a wide range of issues of cooperation...
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2016-04-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Japan-Kyrgyz Republic Relations (Basic Data)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
- Central Asia: A Kyrgyz-Kazakh Step Towards Regional Union This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Dates of establishment and renewal of diplomatic relations". www.mfa.gov.lv.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-08-20. Retrieved 2017-08-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Embassy Address". THE EMBASSY OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC TO MALAYSIA. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "Malaysia Embassy, Kyrgyzstan". Embassy Row. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Embassy of Kyrgyzstan in the United States
- Bilateral relations between Mexico and Central Asia
- admin. "- General Information about Countries and Regions". www.mofa.gov.vn.
- admin. "- Kyrgyz Republic". www.mofa.gov.vn.
- "Pak-Kyrgyz Diplomatic Relations". www.pakpost.gov.pk.
- "Diplomatic Relations of Romania - Ministry of Foreign Affairs". www.mae.ro.
- "Kyrgyzstan". www.mfa.gov.rs.
- "Kyrgyzstan, Solomon Islands sign joint communiqué on establishment of diplomatic relations". akipress.com.
- "Kyrgyz Republic". www.dirco.gov.za.
- "jin_1030님의블로그 : 네이버 블로그". blog.naver.com.
- Korea, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of. "Press > Press Releases".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-09-03. Retrieved 2017-09-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)