Foreign relations of Moldova

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After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, the Republic of Moldova established relations with other European countries. A course for European Union integration and neutrality define the country's foreign policy guidelines.

In 1995, the country became the first post-Soviet state admitted to the Council of Europe. In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and EU established an action plan that sought to improve the collaboration between the two neighboring structures. After the War of Transnistria, Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and cooperating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.

Overview[edit]

Foreign relations of Moldova

Moldova has established diplomatic relations with 97 states,[1] the Holy See,[1] the Sovereign Military Order of Malta,[1] and the European Union.[1]

Moldova has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

  • Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Haiti, St.Kitts and Nevis, St.Lucia, St.Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay
  • Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, San Marino
  • Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, DRCongo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo
  • Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Iraq, Laos, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
  • Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
  • The states with limited recognition.

Relations with the European Union[edit]

Moldova aspires to join the European Union[2] and is implementing its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.[3]

As regards energy policy, Moldova was an observer to the treaty establishing Energy Community from the outset (2006). Following its interest in full membership, the European Commission was mandated to carry out negotiations with Moldova in 2007. In December 2009, the Energy Community Ministerial Council decided on the accession, but made it conditional to amendment of Moldova's gas law.[4] Moldova joined the Energy Community as a full-fledged member in March 2010.[5]

Relations with NATO[edit]

Wörner and Snegur signing PfP on 16 March 1994

NATO relations with Moldova date back to 1992, when the country joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Moldova works alongside NATO allies and partner countries in a wide range of areas through the Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

Relations with post-Soviet states[edit]

The Moldovan Parliament approved the country's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. Moldova however has never participated in any military aspects of CIS, citing its neutrality status.

In 1998, Moldova contributed to the founding of GUAM, a regional cooperation agreement made up of Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova. Although the agreement initially included a declaration of mutual defense, Moldova has since declared its disinterest in participating in any GUAM-based mutual defense initiative.

Russia continues to maintain a military presence in the Transnistrian region of Moldova, despite previous agreements with Moldova and within OSCE and CAF to withdraw its troops and ammunition.

Moldova was granted Observer Status in the Russian-led Eurasian Union in April 2017.[6]

Separatist movements[edit]

The territory of Moldova includes the separatist Transnistria region. Transnistria had a particularly large non-Moldovan population (about 60%) and broke away from Moldova less than a year after Moldova became independent at the fall of the Soviet Union. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic controls main part of this region, and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank. The international diplomatic situation with respect to the question of Transnistria determines and is determined by Moldova's relations with Russia. Russia, Ukraine, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, EU, and United States are involved at different degrees in the conflict resolution.

Africa[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Egypt
  • Egypt is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Egypt from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 South Africa 1997
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to South Africa.
  • South Africa is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.

Americas[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 8 March 1993
  • Argentina is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Argentina.
 Brazil 1993
  • Brazil is accredited to Moldova from it embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Brazil.
 Canada 1992
  • Canada is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Mexico 14 January 1992
  • Mexico is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Athens, Greece and maintains an honorary consulate in Chișinău.[7]
  • Moldova is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington D.C., United States.[8]
 United States 25 December 1991 See Moldova–United States relations

The United States recognized the independence of Moldova on 25 December 1991, and opened an embassy in its capital, Chișinău, in March 1992. A trade agreement providing reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment became effective in July 1992. An Overseas Private Investment Corporation agreement, which encourages U.S. private investment by providing direct loans and loan guarantees, was signed in June 1992. A bilateral investment treaty was signed in April 1993. A generalized system of preferences status was granted in August 1995, and some Eximbank coverage became available in November 1995.

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry made a visit to Moldova in December 2013 to support the former Soviet republic's pro-Western moves in the face of Russian pressure.

The United States remains committed to the 5+2 negotiations process as a means to resolving the Transnistria conflict. The United States supports a comprehensive settlement that affirms Moldova's sovereignty and territorial integrity, while providing a special status for Transnistria.

  • Moldova has an embassy in Washington, D.C..
  • United States has an embassy in Chișinău.

See also: Embassy of the United States to Moldova and Moldovan Embassy, Washington, D.C.

Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia
  • Armenia has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
  • There are around 7,500 people of Armenian descent living in Moldova.
 Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Baku.
 China See China–Moldova relations
  • China has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Beijing.
 Georgia 25 June 1992
 India March 1993 See India–Moldova relations
  • India is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to India.
 Israel 1992 See Israel–Moldova relations
  • Israel is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
 Japan 16 March 1992
  • Japan has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Kazakhstan 16 septembrie 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to Kazakhstan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Kazakhstan has a consulate-general in Chișinău.
 Kyrgyzstan 4 June 1992
  • Kyrgyzstan is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
  • Moldova is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 North Korea 30 January 1992
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to North Korea.
  • North Korea is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 Qatar
  • Moldova has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Chișinău
 South Korea 31 January 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to South Korea from its embassy in Tokyo, Japan.
  • South Korea is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
 Turkey
 United Arab Emirates
  • Moldova is accredited to the UAE from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • UAE is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
 Vietnam 11 June 1992
  • Moldova is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.

Europe[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Austria 25 March 1992 See Austria–Moldova relations
 Belarus See Belarus–Moldova relations
  • Belarus has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Minsk.
 Belgium
  • Belgium is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bulgaria 5 February 1992
 Croatia
  • Croatia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Croatia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
 Czech Republic
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Chișinău
  • Moldova has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark See Denmark–Moldova relations
  • Denmark is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is accredited to Denmark from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 France
  • France has an embassy in Chișinău
  • Moldova has an embassy in Paris.
 Germany See Germany–Moldova relations
 Greece 27 March 1992 See Greece–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Greece and Moldova were established 27 March 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Greece is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Athens.
  • See also Moldovan Embassy, Athens
 Hungary
 Iceland 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 May 1995[11].

 Ireland 1992
 Italy See Italy–Moldova relations
 Latvia 1 October 1992
  • Latvia has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Riga.
 Lithuania 8 July 1992
 Netherlands 6 September 2013
  • Moldova has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy office in Chișinău.
 Malta
  • Malta is accredited to Moldova from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Valletta.
  • Moldova is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
 Poland
 Romania See Moldova–Romania relations

Moldova's relations with its western neighbour, Romania, have been stressed since 1994. today's Moldova (without Transnistria) and parts of the old Bassarabia Governorate currently in Ukraine, were part of Romania during the interwar period (1918–40). Linguists generally agree that the Moldovan language is in fact identical with Romanian.[citation needed] However, Moldovans have been ambivalent about whether they consider themselves Romanians or Moldovans. Early signs that Romania and Moldova might unite after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule quickly faded. Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs, especially that country's civil conflict with the breakaway republic of Transnistria. However, the two countries have been unable to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty; Romania is insistent (against determined Moldovan resistance) that such a treaty would have to refer to Romania and Moldova's 'special relationship'. Beginning in 1994, the two countries enjoyed a visa-free arrangement that ended on 1 January 2007, with Romania's entry into the European Union. This prompted many Moldovan citizens to apply for Romanian citizenship.[12]

  • Moldova has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Iași. .
  • Romania has an embassy in Chișinău and consulates-general in Bălți and Cahul.
 Russia See Moldova–Russia relations

Relations between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the Transnistrian conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept. In the following election, held in 2005, the Communist party made a formal 180-degree turn and was re-elected on a pro-Western platform,[citation needed] with Voronin being re-elected to a second term as president.

  • Moldova has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Chișinău.
 Serbia 1995
 Slovenia 27 October 1993 See Moldova–Slovenia relations
  • Moldova is accredited to Slovenia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Slovenia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Francophonie.
 Spain See Moldova–Spain relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
 Sweden See Moldova–Sweden relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Chișinău
  Switzerland 1992 See Moldova–Switzerland relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
 Ukraine See Moldova–Ukraine relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate-general in Odessa.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Chișinău and a consulate in Bălți.
 United Kingdom

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Moscow, Russia
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to Australia.
 New Zealand
  • Moldova does not have an accreditation to New Zealand.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.


See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Error 403". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  2. ^ Moldova will prove that it can and has chances to become EU member, Moldpress News Agency, 19 June 2007
  3. ^ Moldova-EU Action Plan Approved by European Commission Archived 4 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 14 December 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2007
  4. ^ Energy Community Ministerial Council Conclusions, Dec 2009[permanent dead link].
  5. ^ "Accession Protocol of Republic of Moldova to the Energy Community" (PDF). Retrieved 20 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ https://www.euractiv.com/section/europe-s-east/news/moldova-granted-observer-status-in-eurasian-union/
  7. ^ Bilateral relations between Mexico and Moldova (in Spanish)
  8. ^ Embassy of Moldova in the United States
  9. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Chişinău
  10. ^ "Error 404". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Cetatenia romana, portita spre Europa Archived 15 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine 27 December 2006

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