Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
|Saudi Arabia portal|
Saudi Arabian stated policy is focused on co-operation with the oil-exporting Gulf States, the unity of the Arab world, Islamic strength and solidarity, and support for the United Nations (UN). In practice, the main concerns in recent years have been relations with the US, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Iraq, the perceived threat from the Islamic Republic of Iran, the effect of oil pricing, and using its oil wealth to increase the influence of Islam. Saudi Arabia contributes large amounts of development aid to Muslim countries. From 1986 to 2006, the country donated £49 billion in aid.
Although a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Saudi Arabia was once described as leading the "Pro-Western Camp" of Arab countries, aligned with the U.S. and composed of Egypt, Jordan, and Arab states of the Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia and the United States are close strategic allies and partners. However, the relationship became strained and witnessed major decline during the last few years of the Obama administration, but has since greatly strengthened following the election of President Donald Trump who has since forged close ties with the Saudi royal family. Islam is the main religion of Saudi. China and Saudi Arabia are major allies, with relationship between the two countries growing significantly in recent decades. A majority of Saudi Arabians have expressed a favorable view of China. 
As a founding member of OPEC, Saudi Arabia's long-term oil pricing policy has been to keep prices stable and moderate—high enough to earn large amounts of revenue, but not so high as to encourage alternative energy sources among oil importers, or jeopardise the economies of Western countries where many of its financial assets are located and which provide political and military support for the Saudi government. The major exception to this occurred during the 1973 oil crisis when Saudi Arabia, with the other Arab oil states, used an embargo on oil supplies to pressure the US to stop supporting Israel.
Saudi Arabia is a founding member of several multinational organizations, including OPEC, the United Nations, the Arab League. It is also a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Islamic Development Bank—all of which are headquartered in Saudi. The country plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization.
According to a UCLA history professor, Saudi Arabia recently has become much more active in terms of foreign and security policy for three reasons: the Arab uprisings of 2010 and 2011, the policies of the Obama administration and the collapse of oil prices.
After World War II and during the Cold War, Saudi Arabia maintained an anti-Communist, anti-secular Arab nationalist policy, often working with the leading anti-Communist power, the United States. Following the 1973 oil crisis, where Saudi Arabia and other Arab oil exporters embargoed the United States and its allies for their support of Israel, oil revenues increased dramatically and it worked to become the leading Islamic state, spending generously to advance Islam and particularly its conservative school (known as Wahhabism). The effect has been to purify and unify Islamic faith, according to supporters, and to erode regional Islamic cultures, according to others. (Examples of the acculturizing effect of Saudi aid can be seen among the Minangkabau and the Acehnese in Indonesia, as well as among the people of the Maldives. The Wahhabi form of Islam is also perceived in the West as being a source of Islamist extremism)
Saudi Arabia and its oil policy are thought to have contributed to the downfall of Soviet Communism in the late 1980s and early 1990. Saudi helped to finance not just the Afghan Mujahideen but non-Muslims anti-communists. It also seriously harmed the Soviet Communist cause by stabilizing oil prices "throughout the 1980s, just when the Russians were desperate to sell energy in order to keep up with huge hikes in American military spending."
Following King Fahd's stroke in 1995, Abdullah, then Crown Prince, assumed responsibility for foreign policy. A marked change in U.S.-Saudi relations occurred, as Abdullah sought to put distance between his policies and the unpopular pro-Western policies of King Fahd. Abdullah took a more independent line from the US and concentrated on improving regional relations, particularly with Iran. Several long-standing border disputes were resolved, including significantly reshaping the border with Yemen. The new approach resulted in increasingly strained relations with the US. Despite this, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia were still close nevertheless. In 1998, Abdullah paid a state visit to the U.S. and met with then President, Bill Clinton.
In 2003, Abdullah's new policy was reflected in the Saudi government's refusal to support or to participate in the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Some US critics saw this as an attempt by the royal family to placate the kingdom's Islamist radicals. That same year Saudi and U.S. government officials agreed to withdraw all U.S. military forces from Saudi soil. Since ascending to the throne in 2005, King Abdullah has followed a more activist foreign policy and has continued to push-back on US policies which are unpopular in Saudi Arabia (for example, refusing to provide material assistance to support the new Iraqi government). However, increasingly, in common with the US, fear and mistrust of Iran is becoming a significant factor in Saudi policy. In 2010, the whistle blowing website WikiLeaks disclosed various confidential documents revealing that King Abdullah urged the U.S. to attack Iran in order to "cut off the head of the snake". Saudi Arabia has long since used its alliance with the United States as a counterbalance to Iran's influence in the Middle East and Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf have looked to the United States for protection against Iran.
Relations with the US and other Western countries have been further strained by the perception that Saudi Arabia has been a source of Islamist terrorist activity, not just internally, but also world-wide. Osama bin Laden and 15 out of the 19 September 11 attacks hijackers were Saudi nationals, though some officials argue that this was planned deliberately by bin Laden in an attempt to strain U.S.-Saudi relations, and former Central Intelligence Agency director James Woolsey described Saudi Arabian Wahhabism as "the soil in which al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing." Some in the U.S. Government also believe that the royal family, through its long and close relations with Wahhabi clerics, had laid the groundwork for the growth of militant groups like al-Qaeda and that after the attacks had done little to help track the militants or prevent future atrocities.
Following the wave of early 2011 protests and revolutions affecting the Arab world, Saudi Arabia offered asylum to deposed President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia and King Abdullah telephoned President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (prior to his deposition) to offer his support.
Pro-democracy Saudi activist, Iyad el-Baghdadi, received high amount of traction on his Twitter handle for his sarcastic commentary on Arab leaders. Following this, el-Baghdadi was arrested and expelled from the United Arab Emirates and was forced to leave without official charges or trial. He has been living under political asylum in Norway since 2015. On 25 April, 2019 el-Baghdadi was alerted by the CIA about his life being under an ‘unspecified threat’ emerging from Saudi Arabia, following his open criticism of the Saudi Crown Prince, Mohammed bin Salman. Norwegian authorities have ensured his security.
According to the FFGI at Goethe University Frankfurt, wahhabist ideology is spread globally with organisations closely associated with the government of Saudi Arabia such as the Muslim World League (WML) and the World Association of Muslim Youth are actively participating.
According to government-associated paper Ain Al-Yaqeen article in 2002, Saudi government-sponsored projects were active in non-Muslim countries in Europe, North and South America, Africa, Australia and Asia. These encompassed 210 Islamic centres which were completely or partly funded by the Saudi kingdom, 1500 mosques, 202 colleges and almost 2000 schools. The House of Saud has inaugurated 1359 mosques in Europe.
In February 2019, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman defended Xinjiang re-education camps for Muslims, saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extremisation work for its national security." China has imprisoned up to 2 million Muslims in concentration camps, where they are subject to abuse and torture.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Algeria||See Algeria–Saudi Arabia relations|
|Egypt||See Egypt–Saudi Arabia relations
|Kenya||See Kenya–Saudi Arabia relations
|Morocco||See Morocco–Saudi Arabia relations
|Senegal||See Saudi Arabia–Senegal relations
|Sudan||See Saudi Arabia–Sudan relations
|Tanzania||See Saudi Arabia–Tanzania relations
|Tunisia||See Saudi Arabia–Tunisia relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Canada||See Canada–Saudi Arabia relations
Saudi Arabia is no longer because of conflict happening by online tweeting Canada's largest trade partner among the seven countries of the Arabian Peninsula, totalling more than $2 billion in trade in 2005, nearly double its value in 2002. Canada chiefly imports petroleum and oil from Saudi Arabia, while exporting manufactured goods such as aircraft, cars, machinery and optical instruments.
|Mexico||12 September 1952||See Mexico–Saudi Arabia relations|
|United States||See Saudi Arabia-United States relations
United States recognized the government of King Ibn Saud in 1931. In the 1930s, oil exploration by Standard Oil commenced. There was no US ambassador resident in Saudi Arabia until 1943, but as World War II progressed, the United States began to believe that Saudi oil was of strategic importance. King Ibn Saud met with the U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on 14 February 1945 in a meeting which lasted three days. The meeting took place on board of the USS Quincy at the Great Bitter Lake in the Suez Canal. The meeting laid down the basis of the future relations between two countries.
In 1951, under a mutual defence agreement, the U.S. established a permanent U.S. Military Training Mission in the kingdom and agreed to provide training support in the use of weapons and other security-related services to the Saudi armed forces. This agreement formed the basis of what grew into a longstanding security relationship. The United States is one of Saudi Arabia's largest trading partners and closest allies and has had full diplomatic relations since 1933 and they remain strong today. However, Saudi Arabia's relationship with the United States has been put under pressure since late 2013 following the United States backing down from its intervention in the Syrian Civil War and the United States thawing relations with Iran. The international abduction of American children to Saudi Arabia provoked sustained criticism and resulted in a Congressional hearing in 2002 where parents of children held in Saudi Arabia gave impassioned testimony related to the abduction of their children. Washington based Insight magazine ran a series of articles on international abduction during the same period highlighting Saudi Arabia a number of times
Relations between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia were strained after the September 11 attacks in 2001, when nineteen men affiliated with al-Qaeda, including 15 Saudi nationals, hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners, crashing two of the planes into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing 2,973. Saudi Arabia issued a statement on the day of the terrorist attacks on America's World Trade Center and Pentagon, calling them "regrettable and inhuman." Saudi recognition of the Taliban stopped and as of mid-November 2001, the Bush administration continued to publicly praise Saudi support for the war on terrorism. However, published media reports have indicated U.S. frustration with Saudi inaction. Although 15 of the 19 hijackers were Saudi nationals, publicly the Saudis were not cooperating with Americans who wanted to look at background files of the hijackers or to interview the hijackers' families.
In his first formal television interview as U.S. President, Barack Obama addressed the Muslim world through an Arabic-language satellite TV network Al-Arabiya. He expressed interest and a commitment to repair relations that have continued to deteriorate under the previous administration. The American envoy to the region is former Sen. George J. Mitchell.
On 20 October 2010, U.S. State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history – an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces.
The U.S. was keen to point out that the arms transfer would increase "interoperability" with U.S. forces. In the 1990–1991 Gulf War, having U.S.-trained Saudi forces, along with military installations built to U.S. specifications, allowed the American armed forces to deploy in a comfortable and familiar battle environment. This new deal would increase these capabilities, as an advanced American military infrastructure is about to be built.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Bahrain||See Bahrain–Saudi Arabia relations
|Bangladesh||See Bangladesh–Saudi Arabia relations
When Bengali nationalists began a war of liberation against the Pakistani state, Saudi Arabia supported Pakistan and opposed calls for the independence of Bangladesh. Saudi Arabia saw the Bengali nationalists as opposing a Muslim state and thus opposing Islam. Saudi Arabia provided extensive financial and political support to Pakistan during the conflict. The pro-Soviet, secular and socialist policies of the regime of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding leader of Bangladesh, also antagonized the anti-Communist Saudis. Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh formally established diplomatic relations in 1975–76, after the killing of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman by pro-Islamic military officers. The military regimes of Ziaur Rahman and Hussain Muhammad Ershad took steps to forge strong commercial and cultural ties with Saudi Arabia. Since the late 1970s, a large number of both skilled and unskilled Bangladeshi workers have moved to Saudi Arabia; the number of Bangladeshis living in Saudi Arabia today exceeds 2.7 million. As one of the most populous Muslim countries, Bangladesh is a major source of Hajj pilgrims. Saudi Arabia has become a major source of financing and economic aid to Bangladesh.
|China||July 1990||See China–Saudi Arabia relations
The People's Republic of China and Saudi Arabia established official diplomatic relations in July 1990. Sino-Saudi diplomatic and economic relations grew closer in the 2000s. In January 2006, King Abdullah was the first ever Saudi head of State to visit China. His visit was reciprocated by Chinese President Hu Jintao in April of the same year. In February 2009, Hu visited Saudi Arabia a second time, to "exchange views on international and regional issues of common concern" with King Abdullah.
Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, Saudi Arabia was the largest aid donor to China, providing close to €40,000,000 in financial assistance, and an additional €8,000,000 worth of relief materials. In 2008, Sino-Saudi bilateral trade was worth €32,500,000,000, making Saudi Arabia China's largest trading partner in Western Asia. In the first quarter of 2010, Saudi oil export to China has reached over 1,000,000 barrels (160,000 m3), exceeding export to USA.
|India||See India – Saudi Arabia relations
Saudi Arabia is the one of largest suppliers of oil to India. India's booming construction industry and rising affluence has created greater demand for goods and services thereby boosting Indian industrial growth. Saudi Arabia has contributed aid to India after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake.
|Indonesia||See Indonesia–Saudi Arabia relations
Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah. Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and G-20 major economies. Saudi Arabia and Indonesia have long been close allies. Indonesia sent the largest hajj pilgrims among Muslim countries. The balance of trade is heavily in favor of Saudi Arabia, because of its oil and gas exports to Indonesia. There is around 1 million Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia. Migrant worker abuse and death sentences faced by Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia are the main problems that have strained diplomatic relations between two countries.
|Iran||See Iran–Saudi Arabia relations
Saudi Arabia-Iran relations have been strained throughout history due to the differences between Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. Although Saudi Arabia and Iran are Muslim majority nations, their relationship is fraught with tension, suspicion and hostility. Various attempts have been made to improve the relationship, though none have had lasting success. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran have aspirations for Islamic leadership and both the countries possess a different vision of regional order. Iran, which after the Islamic Revolution strictly followed an anti-US policy, always deemed Saudi Arabia as an agent of the US in the Persian Gulf region that speaks for US interests. Saudi Arabia's concerns about Iran on the other side are mainly associated with its plans of expanding influence to other parts of the Persian Gulf region, especially in post-Saddam Iraq, and the quest to build its own nuclear arsenal.
Differences in political ideologies and governance also divided both the countries. For Iran, it is said that there is no place for monarchical regimes in Islam, like the ones seen in Saudi Arabia and also in some other Arab countries. Energy difference is a third source of tension between Saudi Arabia and Iran. While Saudi Arabia, compared to Iran's smaller oil reserves and larger population, can afford to take a long-term view of the global oil market and has an incentive to moderate prices, Iran is compelled to focus on high prices in the short term.
Relations in recent times have been increasing unstable due to the outbreak of crisis in Syria and Iraq in 2014 with the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. Despite both countries' efforts to help contain the situation, the Iranian government has at times accused Saudi Arabia of supporting ISIS, which they had done up until the events of June 2014. Relations dropped to an all-time low following the Saudi state's execution of 47 Shia Muslim protesters in January 2016.
|Iraq||See Iraq–Saudi Arabia relations
Postwar Saudi policy focused on ways to contain potential Iraqi threats to the kingdom and the region. One elements of Riyadh's containment policy included support for Iraqi opposition forces that advocated the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's government. In the past, backing for such groups had been discreet, but in early 1992 the Saudi's invited several Iraqi opposition leaders to Riyadh to attend a well-publicised conference. To further demonstrate Saudi dissatisfaction with the regime in Baghdad, Crown Prince Abdallah permitted the media to videotape his meeting with some of the opponents of Saddam Hussein.
|Israel||See Israel–Saudi Arabia relations
A charter member of the Arab League, Saudi Arabia has supported Palestinian rights to sovereignty, and called for withdrawal from the Occupied Territories since 1967. In recent years, Saudi Arabia has changed its viewpoint concerning the validity of negotiating with Israel. It calls for Israel's withdrawal from territory occupied in June 1967 in order to obtain peace with the Arab states; then-Crown Prince Abdullah extended a multilateral peace proposal based on withdrawal in 2002. At that time, Israel did not respond to the offer. In 2007 Saudi Arabia again officially supported a peaceful resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Saudi Arabia rejected the Camp David accords, claiming that they would be unable to achieve a comprehensive political solution that would ensure Palestinian Arabs could all move to Israel and the division of Jerusalem. In response to Egypt "betraying" the Arab States and signing peace with Israel, Saudi Arabia, along with all the Arab States, broke diplomatic relations with and suspended aid to Egypt, the two countries renewed formal ties in 1987.
Saudi Arabia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel. The country participates in an active economic boycott of Israel. However, Saudi Arabia recognizes that its ally, the United States, has a strong and supportive relationship of Israel.
Saudi Arabia played an active role in attempting to bring the Palestinians towards a self-governing condition which would permit negotiations with Israel. It has done so primarily by trying to mend the schism between Fatah and Hamas, most notably when King Abdullah invited the two factions to negotiations in Mecca resulting in the Mecca Agreement of 7 February 2007. The agreement soon failed, but Saudi Arabia has continued to support a national unity government for the Palestinians, and strongly opposed Israel's war on Gaza in early 2009.
The Times has reported that Saudi Arabia has tested the ability to stand down their air defenses to allow an Israeli strike on Iran to pass through their airspace. Both nations have denied this.
|Japan||1955||See Japan–Saudi Arabia relations
Relations between Japan and Saudi Arabia were established in 1955. Japan is a major trading partner for Saudi Arabia. In 2006, Japan exported $5.103 million worth of goods to the Kingdom, primarily automobiles, machinery and equipment, and metals. In the same year, Saudi Arabia exported $33.624 million worth of goods to Japan, primarily crude oil and petroleum products. Japan imported 1.3 million barrels a day of Saudi crude in 2006, 31% of the nation's total supply.
Relations with Jordan became strained in the years following the Persian Gulf war. Relations were mended in 1996 when Prince Abdullah visited the country. The countries have since met and discussed international development and the Arab situation.
Saudi Arabia is responsible for ending the Hashemite dynasty's control over Hejaz through their conquests following World War I. Jordan is currently ruled by a branch of the dynasty originally from Hejaz, and installed in Trans-Jordan by the British following the conquest of the region from the Ottomans. It is not entirely apparent how this influences their relationship.
|Kuwait||See Kuwait–Saudi Arabia relations
|Lebanon||See 2017 Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute
In 1989, Saudi Arabia along with the United States helped mediate the end of the fifteen-year Lebanese Civil War through the Taif Agreement. Following the assassination of Rafik Hariri, Saudi Arabia called for the immediate withdrawal of the Syrian occupation of Lebanon. Saudi Arabia has opposed Hezbollah's influence in Lebanon as they are seen to be aligned with Iran. On 4 November, 2017 Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri announced his resignation from Saudi Arabia, this action led to the 2017 Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute.
|Malaysia||See Malaysia – Saudi Arabia relations
Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Riyadh. Relations, both diplomatic and economic, are quite close between the two Muslim-majority Organisation of Islamic Cooperation members. Additionally, there is a sizable population of Malaysian migrant workers in Saudi Arabia.
|Oman||See Oman–Saudi Arabia relations
There have been economic, social and political ties between two countries.
|Pakistan||1947||See Pakistan–Saudi Arabia relations
Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are largely friendly. Pakistan has been called the closest non-Arab ally of Saudi Arabia, or "Saudi Arabia's closest Muslim ally" Saudi Arabia has been rocking the cradle of Pakistani politics, brokering truce among warring leaders, providing asylum to those being exiled and generously lavishing funds on a state strapped for cash.
Diplomatic relations were established at the independence of Pakistan in 1947 and have strengthened considerably owing to cooperation in regional affairs and trade. In 1969 the personnel of the Pakistani Air Force flew the Saudi fighter planes to ward off an invasion from South Yemen. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia invested Pakistan in many Industries. Since the inception of Pakistan, Pakistan has been playing a major and important role in the development of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan has provided assistance in the field of science and technology, infrastructure development and many more fields, Pakistan is providing training facilities to Saudi Armed forces. The Faisal Mosque, the National Mosque of Pakistan in Islamabad, is named in honour of King Faisal and was funded by Saudi Arabia.
Due to the Kingdom's continuing support, many places in Pakistan are named after Saudi Kings and Saudi Arabia in general. For example, the city previously named Lyallpur was renamed Faisalabad in honor of the late Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Also, in Karachi, Pakistan, there are neighbourhoods named Saud Colony, Saudabad, Faisal Colony. Also in Karachi, there is an airforce base name Faisal Airbase named after King Faisal and also, in the honor of King Faisal, the main business street of Pakistan is called Sharah-e-Faisal in Karachi.
In 2005, due to passing of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan declared a seven-day mourning period. Saudi Arabia also hosted former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for 8 years while he was in exile. During his stay there, Kingdom held talks with Sharif and even provided him with license to operate business in the Kingdom. It is believed that it was Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which held talks with President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan to foster their relationship and to allow Sharif back in Pakistan.
The WikiLeaks files revealed in 2010 that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs." One of the Saudi diplomat boasted about the Saudi involvement in Pakistani affairs, stating, "We in Saudi Arabia are not observers in Pakistan, we are participants." Saudi Arabia also complained over President Zardari's alleged corruption and bias against Shiite Iran, thus fearing a Shia triangle stretching from Iraq, Iran to Pakistan. Wikileaks further revealed that, Prince Mohammed bin Nayef, then Saudi assistant minister of interior, described the Pakistani Chief of Army staff Ashfaq Parvez Kayani as a "decent man" and the Pakistani Army as Saudi Arabia's "winning horse" and its "best bet" for "stability". Time reported that "despite the tensions with Zardari's government, military and intelligence links between Riyadh and Islamabad remain strong and close." Time interviewee, Arif Rafiq of an international consulting firm, stated that the cables "demonstrate that the Saudis have deep vested interests in Pakistan and an influence that is so significant that even the U.S. in some way relies on Saudi knowledge of the country."
|Philippines||See Philippines–Saudi Arabia relations
The Philippines–Saudi Arabia relations refers to the bilateral relations of the Philippines and Saudi Arabia. Formal diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 24 October 1969
In 2012, Saudi Arabia was the 10th largest trading partner of the Philippines, 31st and 8th largest market in the export and import market respectively. Saudi Arabia was also the Philippines' largest trading partner and import supplier, and second largest export market in the Middle East. According to the Saudi government, trade between Saudi Arabia and the Philippines amounted to $3.6 billion in 2011, a bigger figure from compared to the previous year's trade figure amounting to $2.7 billion.
As of June 2013, there are about 674,000 Filipinos working in Saudi Arabia according to the Saudi Ministry of Interior. A landmark agreement on Filipino household service workers were signed between Saudi Arabia and the Philippines. The agreement was the first for Saudi Arabia with a labor-supplying country.
|Qatar||See Qatar–Saudi Arabia relations
In 1969, an agreement with Qatar was reached about their borders after three years of dispute. A final agreement about the Qatar border was signed in 2001.
Some financial economists have interpreted the 2014 Saudi–Qatari rift as the tangible political sign of a growing economic rivalry between oil and natural gas producers, which could "have deep and long-lasting consequences" beyond the Middle East-North Africa area.
On 5 June 2017, Saudi Arabia severed diplomatic relations as well as other ties with Qatar. Saudi Arabia explained the decision by referring to Qatar's “embrace of various terrorist and sectarian groups aimed at destabilising the region”, including the Muslim Brotherhood, al-Qaida, Islamic State, and groups supported by Iran in the kingdom's eastern province of Qatif.
|Russia||1926||See Russia–Saudi Arabia relations
Relations between South Korea and Saudi Arabia were established in 1963. South Korea has an embassy in Riyadh, and a consulate-general in Jeddah. Korean International School of Jeddah(KISJ) covers the Korean syllabus and taught subjects in Korean language. In business, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil to the Republic of Korea (300,000,000 barrels, 2014) and Number of Koreans living in Saudi Arabia in (2014): 5,215. Also, ARAMCO Korea was established in 2012. In 2016, two-way trade volume reached US$29.04 billion with South Korea exporting cars, electronic goods, steel and other items to Saudi Arabia and importing oil and other petrochemical products from it. Now, South Korea is described as a "core" partner for the Saudi Vision 2030 project, noting progress in joint efforts to flesh out their cooperation scheme to realize the vision.
|Syria||See Saudi Arabia–Syria relations
President Bashar Al Assad welcomed King Abdullah Al Saud in Damascus in October 2009. The relations between the two countries have greatly deteriorated in recent years, following the Syrian civil war. On 26 February, Syria blamed the Saudi government for arming the rebels with weapons from Croatia, a charge both governments deny. Due to the ongoing Syrian Civil War, Saudi Arabia closed its embassy in Syria.
|Thailand||1957||See Saudi Arabia–Thailand relations
Relations between Saudi Arabia and Thailand were established in 1957. The country enjoyed a very friendly and strongly strategic partnership The historically friendly and strategic relationship between Thailand Saudi Arabia has drastically deteriorated in the 1990s, following the Blue Diamond Affair. Diplomatic missions were downgraded to the chargé d'affaires level and the number of Thai workers in Saudi Arabia plummeted. Saudi Arabia does not issue working visas for Thais and discourages its citizens from visiting the country. Relations between Thailand and Saudi Arabia, already strained, have plunged to a new low in 2014 following a Criminal Court decision that acquitted five ex-police officers in relation to the murder of a Saudi businessman in 1990. Since 1 May 2016 The government of Thailand and Saudi Arabia have been working on strengthening their relations.
|United Arab Emirates||See Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates relations|
For Saudi Arabia, Yemen – like Bahrain – is more an issue of national security than of foreign policy. The Saudis have many access points into Yemen with both formal diplomacy and informal networks at play. Then Crown Prince Sultan managed the tribal networks for decades but the tribal system is changing and diminishing and the Saudi tribal connections are weakening as a result. The country has appeared indecisive about Yemen; in January the government was openly frustrated with President Ali Abdullah Saleh but there was a marked change in its approach in April to one of detailed analysis of the situation and private discussions over whom it should publicly support. The ministry of interior is taking a leading role in dealing with the unrest in Yemen, but other ministries are also making decisions and it is unclear whether there is cooperation between all the ministries involved. Overall, the structure of the Saudi state, and the current preoccupation with issues of succession, suggest that, even if it wanted to do so, Saudi Arabia is unlikely to have the capacity to act as a pan-regional counter revolutionary force.
It is also worth mentioning that Saudi Arabia considers the Houthis a terrorist group, and has reacted militarily against their acquisition of power.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Austria||10 September 1957||See Austria–Saudi Arabia relations
|Croatia||8 June 1995||See Croatia–Saudi Arabia relations|
|Cyprus||1960||See Cyprus–Saudi Arabia relations|
|Finland||23 September 1969|
|Greece||See Greece–Saudi Arabia relations
|Kosovo||See Kosovo–Saudi Arabia relations|
|Poland||See Poland–Saudi Arabia relations
|Romania||See Romania – Saudi Arabia relations
|Turkey||See Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations
Turkey was one of the first states that recognised the country in 1926 and had a diplomatic mission in Hijaz. Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate – general in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate – general in Jeddah. Both countries are full members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). On the other hand, in 1986 Saudi Arabia proposed that Turkey should have ended commercial relations with Iran and that it could compensate Turkey's losses resulting from this.
|United Kingdom||See United Kingdom-Saudi Arabia relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Solomon Islands||July 2014||
Both countries established diplomatic relations in July 2014.
Public relations and propaganda
The United Kingdom and United States have become a major centre for public relations (PR) supporting the Saudi regime. Lina Khatib, head of the Middle East and north Africa programme at Chatham House said that Saudi Arabia had embarked upon a "wide-ranging PR campaign focused on the UK and the US" since 2016, which involved English-language content targeting a British audience. This PR, linked with the support of Theresa May in arms sales during the war in Yemen. In the UK, media PR depicted Mohammed bin Salman as a reforming prince, and major newspapers ran adverts promoting Bin Salman's 'reform agenda'.
This image has been undermined by disappearance and apparent Saudi state-sanctioned murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi. Following these allegations, US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo said, "We call on the government of Saudi Arabia to support a thorough investigation of Mr Khashoggi's disappearance and to be transparent about the results of that investigation" and a UK Foreign Office spokesman said, "These are extremely serious allegations. We are aware of the latest reports and are working urgently to establish the facts, including with the government of Saudi Arabia." France also sought an explanation as to how an "accomplished and esteemed" journalist such as Khashoggi vanished.
Following the murder of Khashoggi, Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel halted the sale of weapons to Saudi. A non-binding resolution was also voted in the European Parliament to “impose an EU-wide arms embargo on Saudi Arabia”. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau threatened to cancel a multimillion-dollar defence contract amidst the Khashoggi controversy.
Consulum, a London-based PR firm primarily staffed by former Bell Pottinger employees, has worked on communications programmes with the Saudi Arabian government and PR firm Freud Communications, which has worked with the kingdom in propagating the Saudi Vision 2030 relaunch under Bin Salman, distanced itself from the regime following the disappearance of Khashoggi. Pagefield Global Counsel and Kekst CNC (a London division of French PR company Publicis) have said that they previously worked with the regime but no longer work in Saudi Arabia.
A number of media companies have worked with the Saudi state to promote its overseas image. Bin Salman met Vice Media founder Shane Smith in early 2018 on his tour of the US, and Vice has had a team promoting the country with the Saudi Research and Marketing Group (SRMG), a Saudi regime-affiliated publishing group and 'organ of soft power'. SMRG has signed a deal with The Independent to launch foreign-language websites (including Arabic) across the Middle East, which has led to concern over potential editorial influence by the Saudi publisher. SMRG also donates to the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change to facilitate Tony Blair's work on the Saudi modernisation programme.
International organization participation
Saudi Arabia is member of the ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BIS, ESCWA, FAO, G-20, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (Applicant)
- Iran-Arab Relations (Saudi Arabia)
- List of diplomatic missions in Saudi Arabia
- List of diplomatic missions of Saudi Arabia
- Territorial disputes in the Persian Gulf
- "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- ‘Saudis donate aid to non-Muslims' The Telegraph, 26 March 2006
- "Saudi Aid to the Developing World". Saudinf. 20 April 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "Arab Aid". Saudi Aramco World. 1979. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- Gardner, Frank (20 April 2016). "How strained are US-Saudi relations?". BBC News.
- "The bizarre alliance between the US and Saudi Arabia is finally fraying". www.newstatesman.com.
- "The U.S. Might Be Better Off Cutting Ties With Saudi Arabia". Time.
- Noi, Aylin ¨Unver. "A Clash of Islamic Models" (PDF). CURRENT TRENDS IN ISLAMIST IDEOLOGY / VOL. 15. Hudson Institute. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
Saudi-led "Pro-Western Camp" aligned with the U.S. and composed of Egypt, Jordan, and the Gulf states.
- "Saudi Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Saudi Arabia". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Genin, Aaron (1 April 2019). "A GLOBAL, SAUDI SOFT POWER OFFENSIVE: A SAUDI PRINCESS AND DOLLAR DIPLOMACY". The California Review. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia and China launch 'digital Silk Road'". www.businessreviewmiddleeast.com.
- "China's Xi Jinping calls Saudi king with pledge to boost ties". South China Morning Post.
- "Saudi Arabia, China Sign Deals Worth Up to $65 Billion". Foreign Policy.
- "Public Opinion in Saudi Arabia". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
- Diplomat, Charlotte Gao, The. "Closer Ties: China And Saudi Arabia Sign $70 Billion in New Deals". The Diplomat.
- "Wang Yi and Foreign Minister Adel bin Ahmed Al-Jubeir of Saudi Arabia Co-host the Third Meeting of the Political and Diplomatic Sub-committee of China-Saudi Arabia High-level Joint Committee". www.fmprc.gov.cn.
- "Oil Embargo, 1973–1974 – 1969–1976 – Milestones – Office of the Historian". Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Gelvin, James L. "Why is Saudi Arabia suddenly so paranoid?". Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Ricklefs, M.C. A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford. 2001 Stanford University Press.
- Abdullah, Taufik. Adat and Islam: An Examination of Conflict in Minangkabau. 1966.
- Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. 2003. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
- Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom. 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
- 'Fueling Terror', Institute for the Analysis of Global Terror, http://www.iags.org/fuelingterror.html
- Rodenbeck, Max (21 October 2004). "Unloved in Arabia". The New York Review of Books. 51 (16).
During the Reagan administration, Saudi Arabia effectively became a weapon in the all-out assault on communism. It was not just the Afghan Mujahideen who benefited, fatefully as we well know, from Saudi largesse, but America's proxy fighters on other cold-war fronts, from Angola to Central America to the Horn of Africa. Less dramatically but perhaps more crucially, the kingdom also bled the Soviet Union by keeping oil prices down throughout the 1980s, just when the Russians were desperate to sell energy in order to keep up with huge hikes in American military spending. In periods of shortage during the past ten years, such as during the Iraq wars and Venezuela's 2002 oil strike, the Saudis have cranked up production to keep prices stable.
- ‘Abdullah’s no reformer’ Foreign Policy, 28 June 2010
- "Wikileaks and Iran". Chicago Tribune. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Johnston, David (9 September 2003). "Two years later: 9/11 Tactics; Official Says Qaeda Recruited Saudi Hijackers to Strain Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- "Arab leaders issue resolutions, emphasize Gaza reconstruction efforts". Kuwait News Agency. 20 January 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
- "Egypt Protests could spread to other countries" The Guardian, 31 January 2011, Retrieved 21 February 2011
- "CIA warns Arab activist of potential threat from Saudi Arabia". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- Biskup, Lennart (2017). Saudi-Arabiens radikalisierender Einfluss auf Deutschlands Muslime (PDF). Frankfurt: Frankfurter Forschungszentrums Globaler Islam (FFGI). pp. 4, 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2018.
- "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps". The Daily Telegraph. 22 February 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing". Newsweek. 22 February 2019.
- "Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide'". Business Insider. 23 February 2019.
- "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism'". al-Jazeera. 23 February 2019.
- "Canada-Saudi Arabia relations". Canadian Government. 9 May 2007. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- "Embassy of Canada to Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Canada". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Bienvenidos a la portada". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Mexico". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Abramson, Rudy (9 August 1990). "1945 Meeting of FDR and Saudi King Was Pivotal for Relations". Los Angeles Times. Washington DC. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "President Roosevelt and King Abdulaziz". SUSRIS. 17 March 2005. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- Gawdat, Bahgat (Winter 2004). "Saudi Arabia and the War on Terrorism". Arab Studies Quarterly. 26 (1). Retrieved 14 September 2013. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Timothy Maier (24 June 2002). "Kids Held Hostage in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Insight. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Timothy Maier (27 November 2001). "Stolen Kids become Pawns in Terror War" (PDF). Insight. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Timothy Maier (18 June 2001). "All Talk, No Action on Stolen Children" (PDF). Insight. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Timothy Maier (7 October 2000). "A Double Standard for Our Children" (PDF). Insight. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
-  Archived 30 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Arms for the King and His Family: The U.S. Arms Sale to Saudi Arabia". Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "US-Saudi Security Cooperation, Impact of Arms Sales – Cordesman". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Home - Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia". www.saudiembassy.net. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "Home – Embassy of the United States Riyadh, Saudi Arabia". Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia". The Economist. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Backgrounder: Basic facts about Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" Archived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua, 9 February 2009
- "Chinese president arrives in Riyadh at start of 'trip of friendship, cooperation'", Xinhua, 10 February 2009
- "Chinese president's visit to Saudi Arabia to show friendship" Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua, 10 February 2009
- China exceeds US in Saudi oil export, New York Times, 10 March 2010
- "Saudi-Iranian Relations Since the Fall of Saddam: Rivalry, Cooperation and Implication for US Policy"[permanent dead link] Frederic Wehrey et al, RAND, National Security Research Division, 2009.
- "Saudi Arabia opens new Baghdad consulate and pledges $1bn in loans for Iraq". Arab News. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- "Login". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Israel denies Saudis gave IDF airspace clearance for Iran strike". Haaretz.com. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Saudi denies Israel airspace deal against Iran Haaretz
- "Japan-Saudi Arabia Relations." Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, November 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2011
- Hudson, Michael C. (1997). "Trying Again: Power-Sharing in Post-Civil War Lebanon" (PDF). International Negotiation. 2: 103–122. doi:10.1163/15718069720847889. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- "Saudi ruler demands rapid Syrian withdrawal". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. 4 March 2005. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- "Omani-Saudi relations". Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom : Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking. p. 294.
Saudi Arabia's closest Muslim ally, Pakistan
- Todays News, 15 April 2011
- Tharoor, Ishaan (6 December 2010). "WikiLeaks: The Saudis' Close but Strained Ties with Pakistan". Time. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- Gfoeller, Michael (20 November 2007). "Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the US on Pakistani President Musharraf's visit to Saudi Arabia". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 07RIYADH2320. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Rundell, David (16 October 2008). "Pakistani relations with Saudis "strained"". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 08RIYADH1541. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
- Rundell, David (17 May 2009). "Special advisor Holbrooke's meeting with Saudi Assistant Interior Minister Prince Mohammed bin Nayef". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 09RIYADH670. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
- "Manila, Riyadh bilateral ties at their best | Arab News – Saudi Arabia News, Middle East News, Opinion, Economy and more". Arabnews.com. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Saudi role in restoring Philippine peace hailed". Saudi Gazette. 30 September 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "3 Gulf Countries Pull Ambassadors From Qatar Over Its Support of Islamists". New York Times. 5 March 2014.
- "gulfnews.com: "UAE, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain recall their ambassadors from Qatar" 5 Mar 2014". Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain withdraw envoys from Qatar". CNN. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- Firzli, M. Nicolas J. (6 April 2014). "A GCC House Divided: Country Risk Implications of the Saudi-Qatari Rift". Al-Hayat. London. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "Four countries cut links with Qatar over 'terrorism' support". BBC News. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (5 June 2017). "Gulf plunged into diplomatic crisis as countries cut ties with Qatar". Retrieved 26 December 2017 – via www.theguardian.com.
- "سفارة جمهورية كوريا في المملكة العربية السعودية". sau.mofa.go.kr. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- Korea, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of. "Consulate General of the Republic of Korea in Jeddah". sau-jeddah.mofat.go.kr (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/middleeast/countries/20070824/1_24421.jsp?menu=m_30_50[permanent dead link]
- "Acting president calls for expanded economic cooperation with Saudi Arabia". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- Saudi Arabia arming Syrian rebels croatian weapons Global Post, 26 February 2013
- "Time running out for thai-saudi relations". (sic) Editorial. The Nation. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Post Publishing PCL. "Thai-Saudi relations likely to worse after murder acquittals – Bangkok Post: learning". bangkokpost.com. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Cite error: The named reference
Islam Hassanwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> Riyadh". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "MVEP • Datumi priznanja". www.mvep.hr. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Denmark". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Embassy of Finland, Riyadh". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Ambassade de France en Arabie Saoudite". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "France". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Deutsche Botschaft Riad – Startseite". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "German Embassy Riyadh – Home". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "New Saudi Arabian embassy in Oslo". The Norway Post, Bærum. October 2012. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved January 2015. Check date values in:
- "Sweden 'caved to banker' in Saudi arms deal". 18 August 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Radio, Sveriges. "Löfven hesitates calling Saudi Arabia a dictatorship - Radio Sweden". Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Tharoor, Ishaan (12 March 2015). "At last, a Western country stands up to Saudi Arabia on human rights". Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Regeringskansliet, Regeringen och (9 March 2015). "Utrikesminister Margot Wallströms planerade tal vid Arabförbundets utrikesministermöte". Regeringskansliet. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Saudis block Swedish minister's speech at Arab League, Reuters 9 March 2015.
- Al Kahtani, Mohammad Zaid (December 2004). "The Foreign Policy of King Abdulaziz" (PDF). University of Leeds. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Request Rejected". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Riyad Büyükelçiliği". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Hunter, Shireen T. (Spring 1987). "After the Ayatollah". Foreign Policy. 66: 77–97. JSTOR 1148665.
- Ukrainian embassy in Riyadh Archived 20 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "British Embassy Riyadh - GOV.UK". ukinsaudiarabia.fco.gov.uk.
- "Request Rejected". www.mofa.gov.sa. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands Sign Protocol to Establish Diplomatic Relations - kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Ministry of Foreign Affairs". www.mofa.gov.sa. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Waterson, Jim (19 October 2018). "Saudi Arabia pays UK firms millions to boost image". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
- "Report: U.K. Media, PR Firms Worked for Saudi Arabia to Boost Image". The Daily Beast. 19 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
- "Jamal Khashoggi: US calls on Saudi Arabia to be 'transparent' about missing journalist". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- "Jamal Khashoggi: Turkey hunts black van it believes carried body". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- "MEPs back call for EU members to halt arms sales to Saudi Arabia". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Klare, Michael (2004). Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America's Growing Petroleum Dependency. New York: Metropolitan. ISBN 0-8050-7313-2.
- Jones, John Paul. If Olaya Street Could Talk: Saudi Arabia- The Heartland of Oil and Islam. The Taza Press (2007). ISBN 0-9790436-0-3. templatestyles stripmarker in
|publisher=at position 24 (help)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Our enemies, the Saudis. United States relations with Saudi Arabia by Victor Davis Hanson, originally published in Commentary, June 2002.
- Saudi Arabia: 14-Year-Old Boy Faces Execution from Human Rights Watch 27 October 2005.
- Saudi Arabia to host Israel boycott event[dead link] by Michael Freund, published in the Jerusalem Post, 7 March 2006
- Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington, D.C.
- Embassy of the United States in Riyadh
- Saudi-U.S. Alignment after the Six Day War
- A Saudi-Israeli Deal (an opinion column by Thomas L. Friedman)