Formins

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formin 1
Identifiers
SymbolFMN1
Alt. symbolsLD, FMN
NCBI gene342184
HGNC3768
OMIM136535
RefSeqNM_001103184
UniProtQ68DA7
Other data
LocusChr. 15 q13-q14
formin 2
Identifiers
SymbolFMN2
NCBI gene56776
HGNC14074
OMIM606373
RefSeqXM_371352
UniProtQ9NZ56
Other data
LocusChr. 1 q43
Domain structure of formin proteins across phyla.[1]
Formin Homology Region 1
Identifiers
SymbolDrf_FH1
PfamPF06346
InterProIPR009408
Formin Homology 2 Domain
PDB 1ux4 EBI.jpg
crystal structures of a formin homology-2 domain reveal a tethered-dimer architecture
Identifiers
SymbolFH2
PfamPF02181
InterProIPR015425
SMARTFH2
SCOPe1ux5 / SUPFAM
Diaphanous FH3 Domain
PDB 1z2c EBI.jpg
crystal structure of mdia1 gbd-fh3 in complex with rhoc-gmppnp
Identifiers
SymbolDrf_FH3
PfamPF06367
Pfam clanCL0020
InterProIPR010472
DRF Autoregulatory Domain
PDB 2bap EBI.jpg
crystal structure of the n-terminal mdia1 armadillo repeat region and dimerisation domain in complex with the mdia1 autoregulatory domain (dad)
Identifiers
SymbolDrf_DAD
PfamPF06345
InterProIPR010465
Diaphanous GTPase-binding Domain
PDB 1z2c EBI.jpg
crystal structure of mdia1 gbd-fh3 in complex with rhoc-gmppnp
Identifiers
SymbolDrf_GBD
PfamPF06371
Pfam clanCL0020
InterProIPR010473

Formins (formin homology proteins) are a group of proteins that are involved in the polymerization of actin and associate with the fast-growing end (barbed end) of actin filaments.[2] Most formins are Rho-GTPase effector proteins. Formins regulate the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton [3][4] and are involved in various cellular functions such as cell polarity, cytokinesis, cell migration and SRF transcriptional activity.[5] Formins are multidomain proteins that interact with diverse signalling molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, although some formins have been assigned functions within the nucleus.

Diversity[edit]

Formins have been found in all eukaryotes studied.[1] In humans, 15 different formin proteins are present that have been classified in 7 subgroups.[6] By contrast, yeasts contain only 2-3 formins.[7]

Structure and interactions[edit]

Formins are characterized by the presence of three formin homology (FH) domains (FH1, FH2 and FH3), although members of the formin family do not necessarily contain all three domains.[8][9] In addition, other domains are usually present, such as PDZ, DAD, WH2, or FHA domains.

The proline-rich FH1 domain mediates interactions with a variety of proteins, including the actin-binding protein profilin, SH3 (Src homology 3) domain proteins,[10] and WW domain proteins. The actin nucleation-promoting activity of S. cerevisiae formins has been localized to the FH2 domain.[4] The FH2 domain is required for the self-association of formin proteins through the ability of FH2 domains to directly bind each other, and may also act to inhibit actin polymerization.[11][12] The FH3 domain is less well conserved and is required for directing formins to the correct intracellular location, such the mitotic spindle, or the projection tip during conjugation.[13][14] In addition, some formins can contain a GTPase-binding domain (GBD) required for binding to Rho small GTPases, and a C-terminal conserved Dia-autoregulatory domain (DAD). The GBD is a bifunctional autoinhibitory domain that interacts with and is regulated by activated Rho family members. Mammalian Drf3 contains a CRIB-like motif within its GBD for binding to Cdc42, which is required for Cdc42 to activate and guide Drf3 towards the cell cortex where it remodels the actin skeleton.[15] The DAD binds the N-terminal GBD; this link is broken when GTP-bound Rho binds to the GBD and activates the protein. The addition of the DAD to mammalian cells induces actin filament formation, stabilizes microtubules, and activates SRF mediated transcription.[15] Another commonly found domain is an armadillo repeat region (ARR) located in the FH3 domain.

The FH2 domain, has been shown by X-ray crystallography to have an elongated, crescent shape containing three helical subdomains.[16][17]

Formins also directly bind to microtubules via their FH2 domain. This interaction is important in promoting the capture and stabilization of a subset of microtubules oriented towards the leading edge of migrating cells. Formins also promote the capture of microtubules by the kinetochore during mitosis and for aligning microtubules along actin filaments.[18][19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chalkia D, Nikolaidis N, Makalowski W, Klein J, Nei M (December 2008). "Origins and evolution of the formin multigene family that is involved in the formation of actin filaments". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (12): 2717–33. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn215. PMC 2721555. PMID 18840602.
  2. ^ Evangelista M, Zigmond S, Boone C (July 2003). "Formins: signaling effectors for assembly and polarization of actin filaments". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 13): 2603–11. doi:10.1242/jcs.00611. PMID 12775772.
  3. ^ Gunning PW, Ghoshdastider U, Whitaker S, Popp D, Robinson RC (June 2015). "The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments". Journal of Cell Science. 128 (11): 2009–19. doi:10.1242/jcs.165563. PMID 25788699.
  4. ^ a b Goode BL, Eck MJ (2007). "Mechanism and function of formins in the control of actin assembly". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 76: 593–627. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142647. PMID 17373907.
  5. ^ Faix J, Grosse R (June 2006). "Staying in shape with formins". Developmental Cell. 10 (6): 693–706. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2006.05.001. PMID 16740473.
  6. ^ Higgs HN, Peterson KJ (January 2005). "Phylogenetic analysis of the formin homology 2 domain". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-07-0565. PMC 539145. PMID 15509653.
  7. ^ Kitayama C, Uyeda TQ (February 2003). "ForC, a novel type of formin family protein lacking an FH1 domain, is involved in multicellular development in Dictyostelium discoideum". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 4): 711–23. doi:10.1242/jcs.00265. PMID 12538772.
  8. ^ Wallar BJ, Alberts AS (August 2003). "The formins: active scaffolds that remodel the cytoskeleton". Trends in Cell Biology. 13 (8): 435–46. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00153-3. PMID 12888296.
  9. ^ Uetz P, Fumagalli S, James D, Zeller R (December 1996). "Molecular interaction between limb deformity proteins (formins) and Src family kinases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (52): 33525–30. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.52.33525. PMID 8969217.
  10. ^ Takeya R, Sumimoto H (November 2003). "Fhos, a mammalian formin, directly binds to F-actin via a region N-terminal to the FH1 domain and forms a homotypic complex via the FH2 domain to promote actin fiber formation". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 22): 4567–75. doi:10.1242/jcs.00769. PMID 14576350.
  11. ^ Shimada A, Nyitrai M, Vetter IR, Kühlmann D, Bugyi B, Narumiya S, Geeves MA, Wittinghofer A (February 2004). "The core FH2 domain of diaphanous-related formins is an elongated actin binding protein that inhibits polymerization". Molecular Cell. 13 (4): 511–22. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(04)00059-0. PMID 14992721.
  12. ^ Kato T, Watanabe N, Morishima Y, Fujita A, Ishizaki T, Narumiya S (February 2001). "Localization of a mammalian homolog of diaphanous, mDia1, to the mitotic spindle in HeLa cells". Journal of Cell Science. 114 (Pt 4): 775–84. PMID 11171383.
  13. ^ Petersen J, Nielsen O, Egel R, Hagan IM (June 1998). "FH3, a domain found in formins, targets the fission yeast formin Fus1 to the projection tip during conjugation". The Journal of Cell Biology. 141 (5): 1217–28. doi:10.1083/jcb.141.5.1217. PMC 2137179. PMID 9606213.
  14. ^ a b Peng J, Wallar BJ, Flanders A, Swiatek PJ, Alberts AS (April 2003). "Disruption of the Diaphanous-related formin Drf1 gene encoding mDia1 reveals a role for Drf3 as an effector for Cdc42". Current Biology. 13 (7): 534–45. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00170-2. PMID 12676083.
  15. ^ Xu Y, Moseley JB, Sagot I, Poy F, Pellman D, Goode BL, Eck MJ (March 2004). "Crystal structures of a Formin Homology-2 domain reveal a tethered dimer architecture". Cell. 116 (5): 711–23. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00210-7. PMID 15006353.
  16. ^ Thompson ME, Heimsath EG, Gauvin TJ, Higgs HN, Kull FJ (January 2013). "FMNL3 FH2-actin structure gives insight into formin-mediated actin nucleation and elongation". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 20 (1): 111–8. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2462. PMC 3876896. PMID 23222643.
  17. ^ Palazzo AF, Cook TA, Alberts AS, Gundersen GG (August 2001). "mDia mediates Rho-regulated formation and orientation of stable microtubules". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (8): 723–9. doi:10.1038/35087035. PMID 11483957.
  18. ^ Bartolini F, Gundersen GG (February 2010). "Formins and microtubules". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1803 (2): 164–73. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.07.006. PMC 2856479. PMID 19631698.

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010472
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR015425
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010465
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010473