Freikörperkultur (FKK) is a German movement whose name translates to Free Body Culture. It endorses a naturistic approach to sports and community living. Behind that is the joy of the experience of nature or also of being nude itself, without direct relationship to sexuality. The followers of this culture are called traditional naturists, FKK'ler, or nudists. The German nudist movement was the first worldwide and marked the start of an increased acceptance of public nudity in Germany. Today, there are only few legal restrictions on public nudity in Germany.
Beginnings in the 18th century
In many parts of central Europe up until the 18th century, people bathed naked in rivers and lakes, although often separately by sex. Beginning in the late 18th century, public nudity became increasingly taboo. At the same time, Lord Monboddo (1714–1779) practised and preached nude bathing as a revival of Ancient Greek attitudes toward nudity.
"Nude culture" and life reforms – up to World War I
The FKK movement was based on an attitude towards life where the naked body is not a source of shame. Freikörperkultur does not involve sexuality. Nakedness in the shower or sauna is not Freikörperkultur, since it is practically necessary. Nudity has to have prior group consent, and therefore requires no reserved zones, such as separate beaches or club areas.
With political liberalization, conservative circles challenged the nude baths which had become popular among urban intellectuals, seeing them as a corruption of morality.
Naturism between World War I and World War II
The first nude beach in Germany was established in 1920 on the island of Sylt. In 1933 after the Nazi Party came to power, nudist organizations were banned or integrated into Nazi organizations. The first dissertation about the FKK movement was written in the 1930s. The first naturist Olympic Games took place in Thielle in Switzerland in August 1939.
From 1945 to present
In 1949, the Deutscher Verband für Freikörperkultur (DFK) (German Association for Free Body Culture) was founded, which today is a member of the German Olympic Sport Federation (DOSB) and the largest member of the International Naturist Federation (INF).
The nude beach in Kampen on the Sylt island in Germany was particularly popular due to extensive media coverage. FKK resorts in Yugoslavia, France and on the Baltic Seacoast became popular holiday places. Naturist organizations gained many new members in the 1960s.
In the later decades of the 20th century, naturism became very popular outside Germany. Beach culture was often intermixed – nude and dressed people would swim together and nudity was widely tolerated.
One popular form of Freikörperkultur is Nacktwanderung, literally translated as Naked hike, where a walking group will collectively hike through the open countryside, which is possible in Germany due to the liberal laws on non-sexual public nudity. This attitude does not extend to German-speaking Austria or Switzerland.
In response to an influx of German FKK enthusiasts crossing the Alps, the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden, which became a popular destination for naked hiking, created laws making nude hiking illegal in 2009. Local regulatory authorities punished public nudity with fines, which many naked ramblers refused to pay.
Many naked ramblers filed a group lawsuit, pleading for legalized nudity, but the case was dismissed in 2011. One naked rambler had to pay a fine after passing through a Christian rehab centre. In 2012, a naturist from Austria overflew Innerrhoden by parachute, but was caught by local authorities.
- Social nudity
- Naturism in Germany
- Lotte Herrlich (1883–1956) regarded as the most important female photographer of German naturism
- Hile, Jennifer (July 21, 2004). "The Skinny on Nudism in the U.S." National Geographic News. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph (1845). Georg Christoph Lichtenberg's vermischte Schriften, mit dem Portrait, Facsimile und einer Ansicht des Geburtshauses des Verfassers: Vernischte Schriften (in German). Gottingen: Dieterichschen Buchhandlung. p. 64.
- Aaland, Mikkel (1997). "History of the Nordic Bath". Archived from the original on 2004-07-16. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- O'Sullivan, Feargus (21 April 2017). "Naked Germany, Straining at the Seams". CityLab. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- McLellan, Josie (2007). "State Socialist Bodies: East German Nudism from Ban to Boom". The Journal of Modern History. 79 (1): 48–79. doi:10.1086/517544. ISSN 0022-2801.
- "Was stört die Appenzeller an Nacktwanderern?". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 17 November 2011. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "Naked ramblers face Swiss fines". BBC News. 30 January 2009. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "Nacktwanderer kapitulieren" [Naked Hikers Capitulate]. 20 Minuten (in German). 5 December 2011. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "Nackter Fallschirmspringer provoziert Innerrhoden". zeitung.dav.ch (in German). 31 July 2012. Retrieved 2018-07-17.