Goilalan languages

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Wharton Range
New Guinea
Linguistic classificationBinanderean–Goilalan[1]
  • Goilalan
Goilalan languages.svg
Map: The Goilalan languages of New Guinea
  The Goilalan languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages

The Goilalan languages are a group of languages placed in the Trans–New Guinea family by Stephen Wurm (1975) and tentatively retained there in the classification of Malcolm Ross (2005).


The languages are,

are clearly related, especially northern Biagai, Kunimaipa, and Weri, which might be considered divergent dialects.


Pronouns are:

  • Northern: 1sg ne, 2sg ni, 3sg pi
  • Tauade/Fuyug: 1sg na, 2sg nu

Tauade also has the possessive pronouns ne-ve, ni-e.


Fuyuge reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[3]

  • baba ‘father’ < *mbapa
  • sabe ‘saliva’ < *si(mb,p)at
  • magata ‘mouth, jaw’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • mele-pila ‘tongue’ < *mele-mbilaŋ
  • imu ‘eye’ < *(ŋg,k)amu
  • ije ‘tree’ < *inda


  1. ^ New Guinea World, Oro – Wharton Range
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Goilalan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.