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In artillery, grapeshot is a type of shot that is not one solid element, but a mass of small metal balls or slugs packed tightly into a canvas bag. It was used both in land and naval warfare. When assembled, the balls resembled a cluster of grapes, hence the name. On firing, the balls spread out from the muzzle, giving an effect similar to a giant shotgun.
Grapeshot was devastatingly effective against massed infantry at short range, and was used against massed infantry at middle range. Solid shot was used at longer range and canister at shorter. When used in naval warfare, grapeshot served a dual purpose. First, it continued its role as an anti-personnel projectile. However, the effect was diminished due to a large portion of the crew being below decks and the addition of hammock netting in iron brackets intended to slow or stop smaller shot. Second, the balls were cast large enough to cut rigging, destroy spars and blocks, and puncture multiple sails.
Langridge (or "langrel") is an type of improvised round that uses chain links, nails, shards of glass, rocks or other similar objects as the projectiles. Although langridge can be cheaply made, it is generally less effective than purpose-made projectiles.
A small cannonball and holder for a grapeshot recovered from the CSS Georgia in 2015
Munitions at Fort McAllister, showing a grapeshot projectile
- Beehive anti-personnel round
- Canister shot
- Chain-shot—a shot consisting of metal chains
- Shotshell, functionally identical small arms ammunition
- Shrapnel shell
- Old Humphrey (1799). The old sea captain. p. 227.
- Davis, Charles Gerard (1984). American Sailing Ships: Their Plans and History. p. 109.
- Henry Burchstead Skinner (1853). The Book of Indian Battles from the Landing of the Pilgrims to King Philips War. p. 141.
- Martin, Tyrone G (1987). "Isaac Hull's Victory Revisited". American Neptune.
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