Official language in
|Nepal, Burma, India, China|
Gurung (also Tamu Kyi, ཏམུ་ཀི :तमु क्यी) is spoken by the Gurung people. The total number of all Gurung speakers in Nepal was 227,918 (1991 census). There is no distinction[clarification needed] between Gurung as an ethnic group and the number of people who speak the language.
- Gandaki Zone: Kaski District, Syangja District, Lamjung District, Tanahu District, Gorkha District, Manang District and Mustang
- Dhawalagiri Zone: Parbat district
Some miscellaneous grammatical features of the Gurung languages are:
- Adjectives relatives before noun heads
- numerals after noun heads
- Rising intonation in bipolar questions
- 1 prefix on negative verbs
- Maximum number of suffixes 3
- case of noun phrase shown by preposition
- No subject or object referencing in verbs
- split ergative system according to tense
- CV, CCV, CCCV
Phonetically, Gurung languages are tonal.
- Languages of Nepal
- Languages of Bhutan
- Manang Language Project of Kristine A. Hildebrandt
- Manang Language Archive at the University of Virginia Tibetan and Himalayan Library
- J. Burton-Page. (1955). Two studies in Gurungkura: I. tone; II. Rhotacization and retroflexion. Bulletin of the Society of Oriental and African Studies 111-19.
- Viktor S.Doherty. (1974). "The Organizing Principles of Gurung Kinship." Kailash. 2.4: 273-301.
- Warren W. Glover. (1970). Gurung tone and higher levels. Occasional Papers of the Wolfenden society on Tibeto-Burman Linguistics III, Tone systems of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal, Pt. I, ed. by Austin Hale and Kenneth L. Pike, 52-73. Studies in tone and phonological segments. Urbana: University of Illinois.
- Warren W. Glover. (1974). Sememic and Grammatical Structures in Gurung (Nepal). Publication No. 49. Norman, OK: SIL Publications.
- Warren W. Glover and Jessie Glover. (1972). A Guide to Gurung Tone. Kathmandu: Tribhuvan University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Warren W. Glover and John K. Landon. (1980). "Gurung Dialects." In Papers in Southeast Asian Languages No. 7, edited by R.L. Trail et al., 9-77. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
- Kristine A. Hildebrandt, D.N. Dhakal, Oliver Bond, Matt Vallejo and Andrea Fyffe. (2015). “A sociolinguistic survey of the languages of Manang, Nepal: Co-existence and endangerment.” NFDIN Journal, 14.6: 104-122.
- Pettigrew, Judith. (1999). "Parallel Landscapes: Ritual and Political Values of a Shamanic Soul Journey" in Himalayan Space: Cultural Horizons and Practices, edited by Balthasar Bickel and Martin Gaenszle, 247-271. Zürich: Völkerkundsmuseum
- Nishi 西, Yoshio 義郎 (1993c). "グルン語" [Gurung (=LSI), Gūrung; Gurungkura]. In 亀井 Kamei, 孝 Takashi; 河野 Kōno, 六郎 Rokurō; 千野 Chino, 栄一 Eichi (eds.). 三省堂言語学大辞典 The Sanseido Encyclopaedia of Linguistics (in Japanese). 5. Tokyo: 三省堂 Sanseido Press. pp. 135b–143b.
|Gurung language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|