Halligen Frisian

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Halligen Frisian (Halifreesk) is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the Halligen islands, primarily Langeneß and Hooge, in the German region of North Frisia. The dialect has survived despite the islands' being home to less than 300 people and unprotected by dikes, mandating evacuations during storms. However, it is now in danger of extinction.[1] Although it is spoken on islands, it is considered a mainland dialect due to its linguistic features.[2]

Grammar[edit]

Verbs[edit]

Below are six commonly used verbs in Halligen Frisian:

Be Have Become Want Shall Can
infinitive weese heewe warde wal skal or schal kun
past participle wään heet wuden weelt sköölt or schöölt kut
person present
1sg bän hääw ward wal skal or schal koon
2sg bäst hääst warst wääl or wäät skääl or schäät koonst
3sg is heet ward wal skal or schal koon
plural sän heewe warde win skin or schin kun
person past
1 & 3sg waos hee wud weel skööl or schööl ku
2sg weerst heest wudst weest skööst or schööst kust
pl weern heen wuden ween sköön or schöön kun
  • The future tense is formed with the verbs wal or skal.
  • The perfect tense is formed with either hääw or weese.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Walker, Alastair G.H. (2001). "Extent and position of North Frisian". In Horst H. Munske (ed.). Handbuch des Friesischen – Handbook of Frisian Studies (in German and English). Tübingen: Niemeyer. pp. 263–283. ISBN 3-484-73048-X.
  2. ^ Walker, Alastair G.H.; Wilts, Ommo (2001). "Die nordfriesischen Mundarten". In Horst H. Munske (ed.). Handbuch des Friesischen – Handbook of Frisian Studies (in German and English). Tübingen: Niemeyer. pp. 284–3004. ISBN 3-484-73048-X.

Further reading[edit]

  • Jens Lorenzen Deutsch-Halligfriesisch: Ein Wörterbuch / Tutsk-Freesk: En Üürdeböök: 6000 Vokabeln Halligfriesisch mit Texten aus dem 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Bräist/Bredstedt: Nordfriisk Instituut, 1977 (in German and Halligen Frisian) ISBN 3-88007-059-8.
  • Ommo Wilts (ed.) Friesische Formenlehre in Tabellen VII: Halligen, Husum: Matthiesen Verlag, 1997 ISBN 3-7868-0513-X.