Harry Osborn

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Harry Osborn
Harry Osborn.png
Harry Osborn
Art by John Romita Sr.
Publication information
PublisherMarvel Comics
First appearanceAs Harry Osborn:
The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965)
As Green Goblin:
The Amazing Spider-Man #136 (September 1974)
As American Son:
The Amazing Spider-Man #597 (August 2009)
Created byStan Lee
Steve Ditko
In-story information
Full nameHarold "Harry" Theopolis Osborn
Place of originNew York City
Team affiliationsOscorp
Parker Industries
Supporting character ofSpider-Man
Notable aliasesGreen Goblin
New Goblin
American Son
Harry Lyman
AbilitiesGoblin serum grants:
Superhuman physical attributes
Enhanced intelligence
Use of goblin-themed weapons and paraphernalia

Harry Osborn (birth name: Harold Theopolis Osborn)[1] is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics Universe. The character first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965), and was created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. He is Peter Parker's best friend, the son of Norman Osborn, the father of Normie Osborn and Stanley Osborn, and the second incarnation of Green Goblin.

The character has appeared in many adaptations of Spider-Man outside of the comic books, including various cartoons and video games. He was portrayed in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man film trilogy by James Franco, 2014's The Amazing Spider-Man 2 by Dane DeHaan.

Publication history[edit]

Harry Osborn first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965),[2] and was created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko.

In The Amazing Spider-Man #122 (July 1973), Harry's father, Norman, is killed off, and a subplot leading to Harry Osborn inheriting his father's identity as the Green Goblin is introduced. This subplot culminates in The Amazing Spider-Man #136 (September 1974). Writer Gerry Conway said that the idea of Harry Osborn becoming the Green Goblin stemmed in part from a desire to deal with the consequences of the psychedelic drugs Harry began using in The Amazing Spider-Man #96 (May 1971). Conway said that he had had experience with such drugs himself, and that "with psychedelic drugs, hallucinogens, if they've been misused, there's a potential for additional hallucinogenic experiences that are completely beyond your control or volition. I could imagine Harry getting hit by something like that, in the fragile emotional state following the death of his father, and losing touch with reality, as a result. Besides, I never had any intention of getting rid of the Green Goblin as a concept forever, so it all came together."[3]

Harry dies in The Spectacular Spider-Man #200 (May 1993). Artist Sal Buscema said that drawing the final two pages of this issue was a deeply emotional experience for him due to how long he had drawn the character, and felt it was appropriate that writer J. M. DeMatteis chose not to add any dialogue to those pages.[4]

Several years later, the Spider-Man writers made plans to reveal that the mysterious villain Gaunt was Harry Osborn, who was still alive and had orchestrated the entire "Clone Saga", but an editorial edict prevented this from coming to fruition.[5] However, Harry was eventually revived in The Amazing Spider-Man #545 (December 2007). He received an entry in the Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Update '89 #5.

Fictional character biography[edit]

Harry is the only son of Norman Osborn and Emily Lyman. The circumstances of Harry's birth weakens Emily, and she dies after a long illness. Heartbroken, Norman becomes a cold and unloving father; Norman either contemptuously dismisses Harry or lashes out at him in fury.[6] As a result, Harry spends much of his life trying desperately to earn his father's approval.

Upon graduating from high school, he enrolls in Empire State University. Among the wealthiest students in the school, Harry soon becomes one of the most popular as well, despite his aloof manner. He has a clique of rich, popular students around him; one of these is the lovely Gwen Stacy. Gwen is intrigued by a new student: bookish, studious and painfully-shy Peter Parker. Harry takes a dislike to Parker; he resents the attention Gwen pays to Peter, and he assumes that Peter's standoffishness is snobbery. After confronting Parker, Harry realizes that Peter is merely shy and is also worried about his ailing aunt May Parker. Despite this rocky start, Harry and Peter became friends, eventually sharing an apartment.[volume & issue needed]

Harry does not realize that his best friend is the superhero Spider-Man, nor that his father became the supervillain Green Goblin in an accident while attempting to create a super-serum. Moreover, before he became friends with Harry, Spider-Man was unmasked and captured by Green Goblin.[7] During the subsequent battle, an electric shock removed all memory of being Green Goblin from Norman's mind. Spider-Man then hid all evidence of Norman's double identity, to keep Harry from being hurt by the revelation.[8]

However, Norman's Green Goblin persona resurfaces from time to time. These are difficult times for Harry, as his father's periodic episodes are unexplainable. He had experimented with drugs in his teens; but he escalates his usage, as well as trying ever-harder substances. This affects his mental stability and his relationships with his friends. Spider-Man uses this to his advantage during one battle with Green Goblin; he is able to stop the fight by showing Norman his son's emaciated condition, brought on by an accidental cocaine overdose. The sight shocks Norman so much that it brings him back to sanity.[9]

Green Goblin[edit]

Harry Osborn as the new Green Goblin, battling Spider-Man on the cover of The Amazing Spider-Man #136 by John Romita, Sr.

Harry is dumped by Mary Jane Watson due to being fed up with his self-destructive lifestyle. Disconsolate, Harry turns to drugs and suffers an amphetamine overdose. He survives, but this tragedy, compounded by imminent bankruptcy, drives his father Norman Osborn over the edge. The elder Osborn kidnaps Gwen as bait for Spider-Man, and then throws her off the George Washington Bridge (or Brooklyn Bridge). In a vicious battle with Spider-Man, the Green Goblin accidentally impales himself on his own goblin glider.[10] Harry Osborn secretly witnesses this. Wanting to protect his father's identity, he strips Norman Osborn's body of the Green Goblin costume. Blaming Spider-Man for his father's "murder", Harry, angry and mentally unbalanced, swears vengeance. Having inherited his father's company, Harry manages to get the business back in shape. One day, to his shock, he finds a Spider-Man costume in Peter Parker's apartment and realizes that his best friend is the man he blames for his father's death. Using his father's old equipment, Harry confronts Peter as the second Green Goblin.[11]

Not wanting to hurt Harry, Peter avoids fighting his old friend. After Spider-Man is able to thwart Harry's initial attempt on his life, Harry is knocked unconscious and taken into police custody. There, he raves that he is the true Green Goblin and Peter Parker is Spider-Man, but is dismissed as a lunatic.[12] He is put in the care of criminal psychologist Dr. Bart Hamilton to extract the Green Goblin secrets from Harry through hypnosis, and buries the knowledge deep within Harry's mind. Hamilton then raids one of Harry's hideouts and becomes the third Green Goblin. Meanwhile, Harry is released and considered cured. He sustains a concussion that makes him forget his knowledge of Spider-Man's identity and he and Peter rekindle their friendship.[volume & issue needed]

For a while, Harry's life seems back on track; his company begins turning profits once more, and he develops a romance with Liz Allan after they meet at the wedding of Betty Brant and Ned Leeds. Not long after the two are married, and eventually they have their son Normie Osborn named in memory of the boy's grandfather. Harry also gives his blessing to the marriage of Peter and Mary Jane Watson. However, Harry starts regaining his memories when he is blackmailed by the original Hobgoblin (Roderick Kingsley) with a package which contains evidence that his father was the original Green Goblin. When Hobgoblin learns he had raided all of Norman's hideouts, he leaves Harry alone, knowing he had nothing more to offer him. Later, Harry is forced to act as Green Goblin a few times, once to defeat the second Hobgoblin (Jason Macendale). This Hobgoblin is seeking the Goblin Formula that gave the Green Goblin superhuman strength; Harry is able to defeat him by doubling back during an aerial chase and emptying his entire supply of pumpkin bombs onto Hobgoblin. Harry even wonders if he could use the Green Goblin persona for a career as a superhero, but Peter convinces him that Green Goblin had too much baggage for such a role. Harry buries the Green Goblin menace within his mind once more and focuses on his business and family.[volume & issue needed]


The death of Harry Osborn.

This tranquility is shattered when the aftereffects of the "Inferno" crisis sunder the barrier between Harry's conscious and subconscious minds. Once again, he remembers being Green Goblin—and his hatred of Spider-Man. Harry has now convinced himself that Peter Parker resents the Osborns' "stable family life" due to never having been wanted by his own parents or guardians, when in fact it was the complete opposite. He uses Peter's trust in him to capture him, and subjects him to hallucinogenic gases to psychologically torment him.[13] He finds himself unsatisfied with this revenge, however, and decides to kill Spider-Man. However, given the opportunity he proves unwilling to kill his best friend.[14]

Harry investigates his father's old hideouts and notes, and finally uncovers and ingests the formula for the original Green Goblin's superhuman strength. He then kidnaps his wife, son, and brother-in-law Mark Raxton, terrorizing them in an old family mansion. Raxton manages to signal their location to Spider-Man who defeats the Green Goblin and turns him in to the police.[15] Spider-Man pushes for Harry to get psychiatric treatment from Dr. Ashley Kafka, but he is ultimately transferred to the Vault.[16] However, the state is unable to put together a sufficient case against Harry, and after just a few weeks in prison, he is released.[17]

Harry discovers that his father developed an advanced version of the Goblin Formula, but was unable to test it before his final battle with Spider-Man. After testing it, he ingests the new formula. When he spies Spider-Man investigating his townhouse, Harry loses his temper and attacks him as the Green Goblin. He injects Peter with a drug that leaves him immobile and, in a fit of depression, activates timed explosives that he had planted throughout the townhouse, planning to kill both himself and Peter. However, when he realizes that Mary Jane and his son Normie are also in the townhouse, he is shocked back to his normal self. Harry rescues Mary Jane, Normie, and Peter before he collapses. He belatedly realizes that he did not test the new formula diligently enough, and that it is, in fact, lethal.[18]


Sometime before his death, Harry created a computer system with copies of his and Norman Osborn's minds programmed into it; after Harry's death, the computer system activates and abducts Normie Osborn with the intent of subjecting him to the Green Goblin Serum (the same one that had caused Harry's death) to make into the newest Green Goblin. This computer facsimile of Harry and its robotic drones (which resemble female versions of Green Goblin) were all destroyed by Spider-Man and the Molten Man who manage to save Normie from it.[19] However, Harry had one last trick up his sleeve. Sometime before his final confrontation with Spider-Man, Harry had employed the Chameleon to construct Life Model Decoys of Peter's parents to play with his emotions. The plot ends with both constructs revealed as fakes when both "die", shattering Peter's mind. After nearly killing the Chameleon, Peter found a tape Harry had left before he died revealing his role in the plot and mocking Peter, demonstrating that Harry was as manipulative and cruel as his father when gripped by insanity. Peter goes temporarily insane from the shock, even briefly rejecting his identity until the return of his clone Ben Reilly snaps him back to reality.[volume & issue needed]

Return from the grave[edit]

After Mephisto's manipulations of the timeline, details of Harry's death is retconned as being faked by Mysterio and his father who spirits his son away to Europe where he is held prisoner in several "rehab" clinics and believes that his son had relapsed into drug addiction, and this, in turn, led to his brief return to wearing the Green Goblin costume.[20] Prior to Mephisto's alterations, Harry was actually dead, indicated at one point his corpse was exhumed and tested.[21].

At some point, Harry is released from rehab and reunites with his friends. However, because of the machinations of his father and Mephisto's warping of reality, erasing the entire world's knowledge of Spider-Man's secret (save for Mary Jane), Harry no longer remembers that Peter Parker is Spider-Man. His marriage to Liz Allan also disintegrates and the two divorce. Harry engages in a string of relationships, several of which result in Harry marrying and divorcing in rapid fashion. He is in a relationship with Lily Hollister. Harry tries to help Lily's father in the latter's bid for Mayor of New York by funding her father's campaign with his dwindling finances.[volume & issue needed]

Harry is also one of the leading suspects for the secret identity of the New Goblin. In the "New Ways to Die" story arc, Menace battles Norman Osborn and is infuriated when Norman states that all he cares about is killing Spider-Man. Norman dons the Green Goblin costume and mentions that Harry has been in the Green Goblin's lair. Norman calls Harry, who realizes from Norman's distorted voice that Norman is wearing the Green Goblin suit. This horrifies and disgusts Harry, who vows to stop his father. Harry angrily confronts his father, who wants Harry to follow his legacy and become a greater man. The confused Harry is saved by Spider-Man. Spider-Man, who wants to beat Norman senseless, stops when he sees an area for human testing. Harry is claimed to be the one responsible for the atrocious acts, although he attempts to plead innocence. Harry later states that he wants to talk to Peter, who moments earlier was kissed by Lily, and is seen leaving with a mysterious canister labelled "Prometheus X-90".[volume & issue needed]

Prometheus X-90, it is revealed later, was developed as a successful cure for Mark Raxton's condition as Molten Man. The only human test subject was Charlie Weiderman, the short-lived second Molten Man, and the only person on whom the serum could be tested. After the cure is administered, Liz finally forgives Harry and gives him back the wedding ring, which she originally claimed she lost.[22]

Renting out all of Liberty Island, Harry takes Lily there and, at the top of the Statue of Liberty, he gets down on one knee and proposes to her.[23] Lily rejects his proposal because she is not sure where their relationship will lead, which surprises Harry. He later goes to her place to check up on her, and as he enters the room he is surprised to discover Lily wearing the Menace costume.[volume & issue needed]

She found a hidden door in his closet and one of his old journals. She begins giving him a hard time about whining so much about his father. Harry thinks her behavior is because she is sick. She continues to tell him she uncovered one of Norman's secret rooms described in the journal. This explains why she kissed Peter after the Thunderbolts attacked; he almost found the secret trigger to open the room. When she first entered the room, she found the Green Goblin's equipment and some experiments. Knocking over some chemicals, she absorbed them and is now able to transform at will. She explains that she discovered Menace's attacks against her father gives him more public support. She also tells him that she accepts his marriage proposal. After their talk, Harry enters one of his father's weapons caches, takes a glider (filled with bombs and winged bombs), a pair of Goblin gloves, a sword, and a dart gun containing an unknown chemical.[24] In the midst of a battle between Menace and Spider-Man, Harry confronts and shoots her with that chemical, which is a type of antidote that reverts her back to her human form. He saves Spider-Man from the crowd and leaves.[25] Lily is incarcerated but later escapes, leaving Harry her ring and a note.[volume & issue needed]

Dark Reign[edit]

Harry is approached by Norman with the offer of a job within the Dark Avengers. Harry initially declines, but accepts his father's offer after learning that Lily Hollister is pregnant.[26] Norman welcomes Harry into Avengers Tower, wanting to make his son into the American Son. Harry is shown to have an ulterior motive, however, based on his compulsion to protect Lily and his child. Disabling the camera in his room, Harry sneaks off.[27] He finds a cure for Lily's condition that will be safe for both Lily and the baby, but Lily pushes him away. Lily reveals that it is a ruse to coerce Harry into taking on the American Son armor, whom Norman had plotted would die in a tragedy to increase sympathy for Norman and the Dark Avengers. Lily also reveals that the baby is not Harry's but, in fact, Norman's. In retaliation for this, Harry dons his American Son armor, and fights Norman in his Iron Patriot armor.[28] During the battle, Norman declares that Harry is no longer his son, and that Norman has bred a better child to replace the 'failure' of Harry. After further taunts from Norman, Harry lashes out and defeats his father, declaring "I was never your son!". When Harry has the option of killing Norman, Spider-Man tells him to decapitate Norman, since his father's healing factor may repair a blow to the head. Spider-Man also cautions Harry that killing Norman will cause Harry to "become the son Norman always wanted". Seeing what he may become with his actions, Harry instead backs down, and turns away from his father forever.[volume & issue needed]

Harry is next seen in a psychiatrist's office, claiming to be getting over the effects of a medical treatment he received. The doctor offers to prescribe him oxycodone but it is not revealed if Harry takes the prescription.[29]

Afterwards, Harry is cut off financially and is forced out of his penthouse apartment. He moves into Peter's old room at May Parker's.[30] He also begins secretly dating Amy Reilly (Peter's cousin).[31] After May returns and is corrupted by Mister Negative, she kicks Harry out of the house, forcing him to move in with Mary Jane Watson.[32]

Heroic Age[edit]

After Norman's fall, the American Son armor is stolen and the police begin questioning Harry, as only someone of the Osborn bloodline can use the American Son armor. Harry is then shot in the chest by Gabriel Stacy, claiming that Norman gave Harry a better life.[33] However, Harry is saved by American Son and taken to a hospital. After Harry recovers from his wounds, he is escorted home by police. Fearing the damage that could be done with the American Son armor and perplexed by his encounter with Gabriel, Harry decides to figure things out on his own. After enlisting the help of a talented reporter named Norah from Frontline, Harry decides to visit Norman, as only he would know about Gabriel. Harry and Norah eventually visit the Raft where they find Norman in his cell, consumed by madness. Harry demands to know about Gabriel, but Norman is unresponsive. Frustrated, Harry and Norah begin to leave, but before they exit Norman briefly returns to his senses and tells Harry that Gabriel is indeed Norman's son.[34]

Trying to make sense of everything, Harry visits May Parker's work where he plans to volunteer. On his way, he realizes that he is being followed by the FBI. It is then revealed through FBI security footage that Gabriel is the one who stole the American Son armor and has been using the armor all along. Meanwhile, Gabriel confronts the American Son armor and is revealed to have developed a split personality similar to Norman's after his exposure to the Goblin Formula. This split personality explains to Gabriel that it represents all that is good in his soul and will use the American Son armor to undo each of Gabriel's crimes. After an intense psychological battle, Gabriel appears to gain the upper hand and proceeds with his plan.[volume & issue needed]

Still attempting to understand Gabriel's plans, Harry determines that, in order for Gabriel to truly hurt him, he will attempt to abduct an innocent person and lay a trap. Harry then rushes to find Norah. Meanwhile, the police arrive at Gabriel's hideout, but are unable to rescue Norah because of the American Son's interference. Harry manages to sneak in through one of his father's secret tunnels and confronts his half-brother.[35] As the police prepare to make another attempt to save Norah, Harry frees her and gets the young reporter to safety. With Norah out of harm's way Gabriel and Harry engage in an epic battle. During the fight, Harry attempts to convince Gabriel that Norman is evil and that attempting to follow in his footsteps is madness. Gabriel refuses to listen and continues his attempts to kill Harry. Saddened by his brother's choice, Harry hacks the American Son armor and knocks Gabriel unconscious. The battle causes the warehouse to go up in flames, trapping Gabriel and Harry inside, but Spider-Man arrives and saves them. Afterward, Norah visits Harry in his coffee shop, and notices a bottle of oxycodone in Harry's things. Troubled by what she finds, Norah concludes that Harry has a drug problem and resolves to help him through it.[36]

After many near-encounters, Carlie Cooper and Peter Parker meet at the coffee shop. Harry and MJ are there and the four are talking when Lily bursts through the wall, followed by an attacking team of supervillains. MJ asks Harry to help Lily Hollister who has gone into labor, but they are held captive by Doctor Octopus.[37] Spider-Man manages to save them and rescue Lily's newborn baby from the supervillains. Harry and MJ take Lily to get medical care, but Carlie was too angry with Lily to accompany them.[38] When Spider-Man secures the baby from Doctor Octopus he runs an analysis on a sample of the baby's DNA and finds it matches Harry's, and thus he is the child's true father. Spider-Man encourages Harry to raise his son on his own and start a new life.[39] Soon thereafter, Harry prepares to leave New York with the baby named Stanley. At his going-away party, Harry encounters former NYPD officer Vin Gonzales reveals he has a Green Goblin tattoo. After Gonzales relays a message from Norman, Harry shocks the man with a taser and beats him.[40]

Months later, Harry is shown in Seattle, Washington living with his son. He is shown to have completely changed his appearance, having shaved his head and grown a beard.[41]

All-New, All-Different Marvel[edit]

As part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel branding, Harry Osborn and his young son Stanley finally came out of hiding, following his father's, the Goblin King, defeat. Going back to his usual look, Harry started using his mother's maiden name of Lyman and has started working at Parker Industries where he is in charge of Parker Industries' New York office when revealed to the Human Torch by Spider-Man.[42] His sons Normie and Stanley like Regent, until the time when all superhumans are disappearing without a traces caused by a superhuman known as the Regent, while Harry is meeting with Mary Jane and Betty Brant, Harry stumbles upon seeing a same logo as the Regent's on Augustus Roman's Empire Unlimited company, and soon realizes, along with Mary Jane, that when he saw a logo beneath Augustus' ripped shirt during the time of Zodiac's attacks on the opening of Horizon University that Augustus is, in fact, Regent, thus sending Betty to meet Augustus to prove if he is Regent or not. As Harry realizes that, Augustus kidnaps Betty. Harry must do it himself to save Betty and the other captured superhumans, knowing that he may be captured soon enough, but manage to contact Spider-Man with Parker Industries' webware created by Clayton/Clash before Regent captures him immediately. With a portion of Clayton's Clash soundwave tech on Parker Industries' webware, Harry manages to break free and contact Spider-Man again before the Empire Unlimited's guards capture him, until Spider-Man arrives and soon releases the other superhumans and Betty, surrounding Regent for good.[43]

Later in the storyline "Go Down Swinging", Harry returns, using the Osborn name after his father again terrorizes the city as the Red Goblin using the Carnage symbiote before being imprisoned once more, even after Emily Osborn turns up alive. He is determined to redeem his family's name from his father's villainous legacy and to be a responsible parent to his sons.[44]

Powers and abilities[edit]

For most of his life, Harry Osborn had no superhuman abilities. After exposing himself to his father's formula, he takes the reins of the second Green Goblin, causing him to become much stronger, cunning and agile. However, he seemingly lost his powers after he returns. The glider he carries has swords, along with usual Goblin technology. He also had temporary access to the American Son armor.

Other versions[edit]


In the MC2 universe, Harry's death in Spectacular Spider-Man #200 remains valid and he does not return from the dead. His widow Liz continues her relationship with Franklyn Nelson and raises her and Normie (Harry's son), but she later succumbs to a fatal illness; her death sends Normie over the edge and, like his father and grandfather before him, takes up the Green Goblin mantle and vows revenge on Peter Parker. After several emotionally charged encounters with Spider-Girl, Normie eventually reclaims his sanity and the blood feud between the Parkers and the Osborns is finally brought to an end.

Ultimate Marvel[edit]

The Ultimate Marvel incarnation of Harry Osborn is the rich son of Norman Osborn and Martha Osborn as well as a friend of Peter Parker at Midtown High.[45] After Norman eventually subjects himself to the OZ Formula, the Green Goblin kills Martha and attempts to kill Harry.[46] Harry is placed into a relative's custody, but he eventually returned to his father and is brainwashed by Miles Warren to forget the previous events.[47] During another battle with Spider-Man, the Sinister Six and the Ultimates in front of the White House, Harry stops his father and he is taken into S.H.I.E.L.D. custody.[48] He is later used as Nick Fury's bargaining piece to negotiate with Norman. Harry begins to blame everyone around him for the situation, and his second personality Shaw (introduced by his father after many years of hypnotic therapy) begins to take control. Harry eventually turns into the Hobgoblin creature. Harry tries to stop himself during a battle with Spider-Man, but Shaw takes over and is wounded by S.H.I.E.L.D. soldiers.[49] He is once again used by S.H.I.E.L.D. to attract his father,[50] but the two end up doing battle, which leaves Harry dead. Peter later makes a speech that honors his friend.[51] When it's revealed that the OZ formula gives his father and Spider-Man immortality, it is thus possible that Harry is still alive somewhere.[52]

Marvel Zombies[edit]

In Marvel Zombies: Return #1, Zombie Spider-Man is taken to an alternate reality where it is the past and Peter is still in college, Harry and Gwen are alive, etc. Harry is shown hanging out (with a mustache) with Peter, MJ and Gwen. However, he is later shown being eaten by a zombified Sinister Six, along with his friends.

Spider-Man: Clone Saga[edit]

In the simplified re-telling of the Clone Saga, Harry secretly survived his final battle with Spider-Man and has Kaine under his employment. He appears to still be mad from the Goblin Formula and clones his deceased father, who apparently was indeed killed by his Goblin Glider in this reality. Harry soon heads out to attack Ben Reilly in the guise of the Green Goblin. His plans are thwarted when Kaine switches sides. The Norman clone, who is not insane due to not being exposed to the Goblin Formula, tries to convince Harry to stop before sacrificing himself by jumping in front of the moving Goblin Glider (akin to Ben Reilly's death in the main universe). The series concludes with an irate Harry swearing vengeance.[53]

Spider-Man: Life Story[edit]

Spider-Man: Life Story features an alternate continuity where the characters naturally age after Peter Parker becomes Spider-Man in 1962. In 1966, Peter has Norman arrested to prevent the Green Goblin from hurting anyone, leaving Harry in charge of Oscorp. In 1977, Harry is engaged to Mary Jane, but shows signs of a drug addiction brought upon by the stress of his position and his father's imprisonment. Norman convinces Harry to attack Miles Warren as the Black Goblin to retrieve his clone, but Harry discovers that Miles also cloned Peter and Gwen Stacy in the process. Harry realizes Norman cloned Peter because Norman still considered Peter the more worthy heir and attacks him. After Peter convinces Harry of his father's manipulations, Harry blows up the facility, killing all the clones except Peter's. However, Miles reveals that the "Gwen" Peter was with was actually her clone while the real Gwen died in the explosion, leaving Harry wracked with guilt. A year later, he broke up with Mary Jane and left her with a significant amount of money before disappearing. In 1995, Otto threatened Harry into using Oscorp so he could use the equipment to study Peter and his clone, Ben, to find a way to clone himself. Chaos erupts after he discovers that Peter is supposedly the clone while Ben is the original. When Otto attempts to kill them both, Harry sacrifices himself to save Peter. As he dies in Peter's arms, he apologizes for being weak with Otto and his father, though Peter reassures him that he wasn't.[54]


In this version, Harry Osborn was a social outcast at high school. Peter Parker said that rumor has it that he tried to burn his old prep school down. Flash Thompson bullies him and nicknames him the "Green Goblin" based on his wealth and when people saw him carrying role-playing dice. Gwen Stacy and Peter befriend him out of pity, and Harry asks Gwen out to the prom, angering Peter. He witnesses Peter transform into the Lizard, fight Spider-Woman and die. At Peter's funeral, he feels guilty that he did not do anything to prevent Peter's death, and disappears from school for two years.[55] He returned one night to Gwen at the cabin of Mary Jane Watson's aunt to reveal to her that he joined the army and S.H.I.E.L.D. after Peter's death and plans to avenge him by taking down Spider-Woman. He also learned to pilot a glider similar to the one the Green Goblin uses in the main universe. During his fight with Spider-Woman, he takes the Lizard serum to overpower the heroine, but runs away after discovering Spider-Woman is Gwen. He is then on the run from S.H.I.E.L.D. and is pursued by the Hand ninjas, Wolverine, and Shadowcat before fully transforming into the Lizard. Figuring out that there is a connection with their powers and a mysterious substance given to her by Matt Murdock, Gwen manages to get the Lizard serum out of Harry's blood and combines it with the substance, which forms the Venom symbiote.[56]


  • During the "Spider-Geddon" storyline, the Earth-44145 version of Harry Osborn arrives at Oscorp and makes his way through the building. The narration is in the form of a letter to Harry from Peter Parker on what is happening at Oscorp. As a six-armed Norman Osborn is informed of Harry moving through Oscorp and having been secretly armed, he is told that Harry is on the 15th floor near Mr. Warren's lab. Becoming Spider-Man and arriving where a warped Cosmic Cube is located, Norman confronts Harry who dons the Kobold armor. It was revealed during the fight that Norman killed Peter Parker as a badly-injured Harry fires a laser beam at the warped Cosmic Cube.[57]
  • During the return of the Inheritors, Spider-Gwen's device to travel through the multiverse got destroyed by Verna and then Gwen got stranded in an alternate universe.[58] In this universe Peter Parker and this universe's Gwen Stacy got a job at Oscorp and Peter wanted to create a cure for cancer, after his Uncle Ben died from it. Peter was experimenting with spider venom to create the cure but one of the spiders bit Harry Osborn making Harry this universe's Spider-Man. Harry alongside Gwen Stacy as this universe's Green Goblin started to fight crime together, until during a fight with the Sandman, both Harry and Gwen's father got killed.[59]

Infinity Warps[edit]

During Infinity Wars, when the universe was folded, Harry's father, Norman is fused with Jack Russel and became Goblin by Night. Harry is best friend with Peter Spector and they work together in their company. Harry is also Peter's partner, since he knows Peter's secret identity as Arachknight. When Peter tried to kill Norman, since Norman killed Peter's family, Harry intervened and saved his father. While Harry was taking care of his father, Norman lost control and bit Harry, passing the curse to him. Harry now as the new Goblin by Night, starts using the Glider that Peter builded to him prior to becoming the Goblin, leaving Norman free from the curse and being forgiven by Peter and decide to find a way to cure Harry.[60]

In other media[edit]


  • Harry Osborn is mentioned in the 1981 Spider-Man cartoon in the episode "The Vulture Has Landed".
  • Harry Osborn appeared in Spider-Man: The Animated Series, voiced by Gary Imhoff. This version was attracted to Mary Jane Watson due to Peter Parker neglecting MJ. Mary Jane subsequently left Peter for Harry. They became engaged, although MJ eventually called off their engagement realising she was in love with Peter. When Norman Osborn was apparently killed in an explosion at Oscorp, the original Green Goblin began kidnapping Oscorp's board members. Harry was initially suspect to be the Goblin, but it later turned out that his father had survived the explosion and was the villain himself. Harry is later contacted by the Goblin trapped in limbo. The Goblin's visions had him take the Goblin serum and exact revenge on Spider-Man, with the promise to see his presumed deceased father. But Spider-Man defeated the second Green Goblin and Harry was enrolled at Ravencroft to receive treatment. When Peter and Mary Jane were getting married, Harry discovered this and his insanity broke out once again. The Goblin interrupted the wedding and threatened to destroy the church, trying to force Mary Jane to marry him instead of Peter. In the end, Liz Allan appeared to the Goblin, convincing him not to blow up the church nor marry Mary Jane. Told by Liz that he was loved, Harry walked away peacefully and let the wedding resumed.
  • Harry Osborn appeared in Spider-Man: The New Animated Series, voiced by Ian Ziering. This version, pictured as a blonde, constantly blames Spider-Man for his father's death but shows signs of beginning to put the grudge aside in later episodes.
  • Harry Osborn appears in The Spectacular Spider-Man animated series, voiced by James Arnold Taylor. As in the comics, Harry is depicted as Peter Parker’s classmate/best friend and spends much of his life trying desperately to earn his father's approval. Harry takes the 'Globulin Green' serum to boost his physical abilities but apparently causes the development of a second personality which symbolizes his notion of "the man his father wanted [Harry] to be". Following several battles, Spider-Man comes to believe Harry is the series' iteration of Green Goblin but allows Norman to look after his son. Harry returns in the second season after a tour of Europe to help break his addiction to the serum. After Flash Thompson exposes Harry's addiction to league administrators and loses the trophy their team won as a result, Harry destroys the remaining 'Globulin Green' vials he kept hidden. Soon after, Harry develops a relationship with Gwen Stacy. During the series finale, Harry overhears Gwen and Peter express their feeling with one another, as well as their plans to break up with Liz and Harry, growing angry. He later learns the truth that Norman was the Goblin all along, witnessing his father's supposed death during a fight with Spider-Man. At his father's funeral, Harry blames Spider-Man for his father's murder and Gwen stays in their relationship out of guilt. Angry and possibly mentally unbalanced, Harry swears vengeance on Spider-Man. This storyline, however, was never resolved as copyright issues led to the show's premature cancellation.
  • Harry Osborn appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man cartoon series, voiced by Matt Lanter. This version is one of Peter Parker's best friends, Norman Osborn's estranged son, the series' first major host of the Venom symbiote, a student at Midtown High School, and a friend/acquaintance to both Mary Jane Watson and Flash Thompson. He has several encounters with Spider-Man during seasons one and two, some that usually involve Norman. In "Great Power", he gets injured by Klaw while trying to protect Mary Jane from the Frightful Four's assault on Midtown High. In "Venom", Harry is then jealous of Peter's 'new friends' so he throws a huge party that gets crashed by the Venom symbiote. Harry is also among Taskmaster's suspects with Flash of who could be Spider-Man (in "Why I Hate The Gym") and tries to act cool to Mary Jane's video interview (in "Exclusive"). In "Back in Black", Harry bonds with the organism to be the Black Suit Spidey in an attempt to one-up Spider-Man to impress Norman but the symbiote's personality takes over and turns into Venom until Spider-Man electrocutes and disintegrates the organism off Harry. But in "Venomous", the Venom organism returns and with Harry having no memory of recent actions. Both Spider-Man and Norman try to help him without exposing his status as Venom's host to Nick Fury. Eventually, Spider-Man's cure supposedly works on Harry with Norman's resources taking of his son. In the season finale, Harry is taken to the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier during the Green Goblin's rampage. The fighting chaos and confusion caused the Venom symbiote to reform after the Goblin's provoking. Although he eventually manages to shake off the parasitic suit with electricity, Harry swears vengeance on Spider-Man for his father's fate. In "Carnage", he watches the Goblin kidnap Peter to later be forcibly transformed into the Carnage symbiote's host. Harry stops Carnage and saves Peter by rebonding with the Venom symbiote. However, Venom acts on Harry's dark desires, attacking the Goblin until Peter manages to convince Harry to get rid of the Venom symbiote, to which S.H.I.E.L.D. manages to capture to ensure no more harm. In "Stan By Me", he and Mary Jane help Spider-Man and Stan the Janitor have a showdown with the Lizard. Harry also tries to tolerate the web-slinger about Norman's well being (in "Venom Bomb" and "Second Chance Heroes"). The character has a minor role in Ultimate Spider-Man: Web Warriors when he's the Vulture's accidental target despite Spider-Man's attempts (in "The Vulture") and is relieved that his father's cured fate when he and Peter visit (in "The Spider-Verse" [Pt 4]). Harry Osborn has a supporting role in Ultimate Spider-Man vs The Sinister Six as the Patrioteer as well as the Anti-Venom symbiote's host. In the "Hydra Attacks" two-part premiere, Harry finds out that Doctor Octopus was the Goblin serum's creator. During the Sinister Six's invasion in cooperation with an international terrorist organization, Harry gets close to being a candidate as a new Green Goblin by Doc Ock after his reformed father's anti-Goblin serum is revealed until Spider-Man and Scarlet Spider rescue the Osborns from Doc Ock's Goblin army, and helps the two web-slingers with anti-Goblin serums against the Goblin army. In "Iron Vulture", Harry wears the Patrioteer armor to help Spider-Man, Iron Patriot and Kid Arachnid fight Doc Ock and Vulture. In "Anti-Venom", Patrioteer help Spider-Man and Agent Venom against Doc Ock. During a fight, he becomes Anti-Venom's host. After an ion-inhibitor leaves Anti-Venom unconscious, Harry is left in a coma with Curt Connors unsure of recovery despite strong life signs. Harry returns in "The Symbiote Saga" three-part episode. He is still in a coma at Oscorp with Mary Jane at his side. When Carnage's various hosts break in, the attack ends up awakening Anti-Venom to neutralize the Carnage's hosts. When Anti-Venom almost gets consumed by Carnage's 'heart', Spider-Man's secret identity is revealed to get through to Harry. Despite Peter's protests, Harry sacrifices Anti-Venom to stop Carnage's outbreak, and then learns that Flash is Agent Venom. After Carnage envelops Midtown High, he returns in his Patrioteer armor to help Spider-Man and Agent Venom to against Morbius the Living Vampire and the Carnage Queen. Patrioteer, Agent Venom and Spider-Man ultimately reveal their respective identities to break Mary Jane's connection as the Carnage Queen. Patrioteer is later with Spider-Man and New Warriors in the Triskelion. In the series finale, Patrioteer is seen at Spider-Man's graduation and as a new student as well.
  • Harry Osborn appears in Marvel's Spider-Man, voiced by Max Mittelman. This version is shown with black hair rather than red, auburn or brown, and was a student at Horizon High. He first appears in the "Origins" animated shorts, attending the field trip to Oscorp alongside Peter Parker. He is framed by Spencer Smythe into sabotaging a project and suspended from Horizon High, with Peter assigned to take over his lab. He views Spider-Man as a menace during their various encounters. Despite being declared innocent of the crime, he decides to enroll in Norman Osborn's Osborn Academy, unaware that his own father was the one who ordered his framing. During the "Spider Island" arc, he proved instrumental in curing the entire population from the Jackal's Spider virus but discovers Peter's identity as Spider-Man in the process which fractures their friendship as he still blames Spider-Man for his various misfortunes. In the two-part season one finale, he uses the Hobgoblin identity (a nod to his Ultimate Marvel counterpart). He's convinced by his father that Spider-Man needs to be stopped when Spider-Man works with Doctor Octopus's Sinister Six. After finding out Spider-Man was under mind control, he rescues Peter and becomes a crime-fighting partner after the two make amends. But the Hobgoblin starts showing up randomly without Harry realizing, theorizing it's a combination of his subconscious hate of Spider-Man which hasn't fully pushed out and his own cure experiments on himself. He and Spider-Man eventually discover that the impostor is Norman attempting to kill Spider-Man so Harry could be a popular hero to carry on the Osborn name. Harry rescues Spider-Man, resulting in Norman seemingly perishing from a green chemical explosion. Harry inherits his father's position as Oscorp's new CEO.


Spider-Man trilogy[edit]

James Franco as Harry Osborn / New Goblin in Spider-Man 3.
  • Harry Osborn appears in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy, played by James Franco:
    • In the 2002 film, Harry is Peter Parker's best friend. He is embarrassed by his wealth and privilege, and has flunked out of multiple private schools. Yearning to impress Norman Osborn, he grows jealous of Peter's close relationship with his father. He dates Mary Jane Watson during the film's first half, though MJ eventually falls for Peter and he manages to mend his relationship with Norman. After Norman's death as the Green Goblin, Harry believes that his father was murdered by Spider-Man and wants to seek revenge, unaware that Norman accidentally killed himself in a failed attempt to kill Spider-Man.
    • In Spider-Man 2, seeking revenge on Spider-Man, Harry takes over Oscorp and forms an alliance with Doctor Octopus to get revenge, providing the villain with a rare hydrogen isotope he needs to complete a fusion reactor in exchange for Doctor Octopus's capture of Spider-Man. Afterwards, he learns that Peter is Spider-Man after unmasking the hero in preparation to kill. Harry later has a hallucination of his father, demanding that his son avenge. He refuses and smashes the mirror, only to find a hidden room with the Green Goblin equipment and serum; he then realizes that his father was the infamous supervillain.
    • In Spider-Man 3, Harry finally becomes New Goblin. New Goblin attempts to take revenge, but briefly sustains amnesia after Peter knocks him unconscious during their first battle. While in this state, Harry reverts to his old self by seeing a vision of his father. Remembering his pledge to kill Peter, New Goblin attempts to sabotage Peter's relationship with Mary Jane and then claims that their friend left Peter for him, only for Peter — falling increasingly under the symbiote's influence — to attack New Goblin in his penthouse, throwing one of his own pumpkin bombs back at him and scarring the right side of Harry's face and left half-blind. After finally learning the truth of his father's death from his butler Bernard Houseman, New Goblin helps Spider-Man save Mary Jane from Venom and Sandman, and sacrifices himself to save Peter by being impaled on his own glider by Venom. Spider-Man then uses New Goblin's pumpkin bomb to destroy Venom. Harry succumbs with Peter and Mary Jane at his side.

The Amazing Spider-Man series[edit]

Dane DeHaan as Harry Osborn / Green Goblin in The Amazing Spider-Man 2.
  • Dane DeHaan portrays Harry Osborn / Green Goblin in The Amazing Spider-Man 2. This version is Peter Parker's childhood friend until being sent to boarding school in Europe. Learning that he's dying of Norman Osborn's terminal hereditary illness, Harry attempts to ask Spider-Man for a blood sample, correctly deducing that Spider-Man's powers come from Oscorp's genetically-engineered spiders that have since been destroyed. But Spider-Man (both as Peter and Spider-Man) refuses, fearing that the transfusion could mutate Harry. Spider-Man insists for more time for research though Harry refuses to wait. When Harry is forced out of his own company as a scapegoat for Electro's creation, he breaks into Ravencroft to release Electro for aid. Electro causes a distraction while Harry uses VP Donald Menken to break into Oscorp's special projects division to recover the remaining venom samples and uses one which hideously mutates his physiology, subsequently stealing Oscorp's battle suit and glider. As the Goblin, he sets out to kill Spider-Man and sees Gwen Stacy alongside the wall-crawler; his knowledge that Gwen and Peter have been dating allows the Goblin to realize that Peter and Spider-Man are the same person. As retaliation for refusing to help, his warped mind now interpreting Spider-Man's rejection as a betrayal despite his current state proving Peter's fears justified. The Goblin grabs Gwen and fights Spider-Man in a clock-tower, the fight culminating in the Goblin being knocked unconscious and Gwen's death. Five months later with Spider-Man's apparent retirement, Harry was sent to Ravencroft for his crimes and regains his normal appearance, though he claims the hideousness "comes and goes". He and the mysterious Gustav Fiers make plans to use the rest of the equipment in special projects for their own ends, planning to create a small team.
  • DeHaan was set to reprise his role in The Sinister Six and The Amazing Spider-Man 3. However, Marvel Studios and Sony reached a deal to produce a second reboot of the Spider-Man film franchise, beginning with Spider-Man: Homecoming. Therefore, The Amazing Spider-Man 3 was cancelled and The Sinister Six was put on hold, and may be adapted later in the new film universe, the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[61]

Video games[edit]

  • Harry Osborn appears in the Spider-Man video game, voiced by Josh Keaton. Though he doesn't play a major part in the main plot, the game features a bonus story mode where Harry takes on the Green Goblin role and investigates a plan to take over Oscorp.
  • Harry Osborn appears in the Spider-Man 2 video game, again voiced by Josh Keaton. Like in the movie, he's obsessed with killing Spider-Man for his father's murder and goes as far as asking Doctor Octopus to capture Spider-Man.
  • New Goblin appears in the Spider-Man 3 video game, voiced by James Franco. He tries to take out Peter Parker as a boss and later assists in dealing with Sandman and Venom as a playable character. He is also a downloadable character on the game's Xbox 360 version. In the game's limited PlayStation 3 edition, he is unlockable and is downloadable for the normal version as well.
  • New Goblin appears in Spider-Man: Friend or Foe, with Josh Keaton reprising his role. He first appears at the start of the game, aiding Spider-Man in fighting the Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, Sandman and Venom, he is soon abducted by the mysterious P.H.A.N.T.O.Ms alongside the villains and is not seen throughout the rest of the game, but becomes a secret playable character following its completion.
  • The Harry Osborn version of Green Goblin appears in 2014's The Amazing Spider-Man 2, voiced by Kevin Dorman. Like his film counterpart, this version also takes on the Goblin role. However, Harry is still the CEO of Oscorp, and very cautious after finding out that Donald Menken and the Kingpin are attempting to do a hostile take over for a criminal empire behind Harry's back. When Spider-Man tells Harry about research and test the cure compatibility between his and Harry's blood samples might take too long a bit, Harry turns down Spider-Man's suggestion and instead, doing his own to find an existing cure within Oscorp. Before finding the cure without alerting Menken's signals, Harry hires some of his colleagues who joined Kingpin's Task Force only for a money, and in turn, they will assist Harry to kill Kingpin, Menken and Spider-Man. As the researcher from Oscorp finds a prototype spider-venom serum from the late Richard Parker, Harry is advised by the researcher the same thing what Spider-Man suggested Harry to, but Harry ignores the researcher's advice, and will take any chance to use immediately, even if the serum hurts him.
  • Harry Osborn appears in the 2018 Spider-Man video game, voiced by Scott Porter. This version still remains best friends with Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson. Harry was inspired by his mother to be an environmentalist attorney, and has set up various research stations in New York to monitor air pollution which Spider-Man can help with in a sidequest. Although Norman Osborn tells Peter and Mary Jane that Harry is taking a long European vacation, he's actually a victim of Oshtoran Syndrome, the same degenerative genetic disease that killed his mother which he inherited from and Norman is working towards finding a cure for it using GR-27, a.k.a. "Devil's Breath". He kept his illness a secret from Peter and Mary Jane because he was worried of how'd they react if they found out. In a post-credits scene, Osborn returns to the lab where Harry is kept in a holding tank with a black web-like substance until a cure can be found for his condition.


  1. ^ Spider-Man: Brand New Day Yearbook, Marvel Comics, 2008).
  2. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 31. ISBN 978-0756692360. This monumental issue saw the first appearances of Peter's upcoming love interest Gwen Stacy, prospective best friend, Harry Osborn, and even the future super villain known as the Jackal.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Williams, Scott E. (October 2010). "Gerry Conway: Everything but the Gwen Stacy Sink". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (44): 14.
  4. ^ Aushenker, Michael (October 2010). "Not Amazing, but Spectacular". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (44): 60.
  5. ^ Veronese, Keith (October 2010). "Spider-Man: The Beginnings of the Clone Saga". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (44): 69–77.
  6. ^ The Spectacular Spider-Man Annual #14
  7. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #39 (August 1966)
  8. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #40 (September 1966)
  9. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #98 (July 1971)
  10. ^ Amazing Spider-Man #121-122 (June–July 1973)
  11. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #136
  12. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #137
  13. ^ The Spectacular Spider-Man #180-181
  14. ^ The Spectacular Spider-Man #182-183
  15. ^ The Spectacular Spider-Man #189
  16. ^ The Spectacular Spider-Man #190
  17. ^ The Spectacular Spider-Man #199
  18. ^ The Spectacular Spider-Man #200
  19. ^ Spider-Man: Legacy Of Evil
  20. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #581
  21. ^ Spider-Man: Legacy of Evil #1 (June 1996). Marvel Comics.
  22. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #582
  23. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #583
  24. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #586
  25. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #588
  26. ^ Joe Kelly (w), Phil Jimenez (p), Andy Lanning (i). "Dark Reign" The Amazing Spider-Man #595 (May 2009), Marvel Comics
  27. ^ Joe Kelly (w), Paulo Siqueira (p), Amilton Santos (i). "Dark Reign" The Amazing Spider-Man #596 (June 2009), Marvel Comics
  28. ^ Joe Kelly (w), Paulo Siqueira, Marco Checchetto (p), Paulo Siqueira, Marco Checchetto, Amilton Santos (i). "Dark Reign" The Amazing Spider-Man #598 (June 2009), Marvel Comics
  29. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #599
  30. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #604
  31. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #605
  32. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #618-619
  33. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Presents: American Son #1
  34. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Presents: American Son #2
  35. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Presents: American Son #3
  36. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Presents: American Son #4
  37. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #642
  38. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #643
  39. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #646
  40. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #647
  41. ^ The Amazing Spider-Man #697
  42. ^ Amazing Spider-Man vol. 4 #3
  43. ^ Amazing Spider-Man vol. 4 #1 and #13-15
  44. ^ Amazing Spider-Man vol. 1 #800
  45. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #1
  46. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #3
  47. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #22-25
  48. ^ Ultimate Six #6
  49. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #74
  50. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #115
  51. ^ Ultimate Spider-Man #117
  52. ^ Miles Morales: Ultimate Spider-Man #6
  53. ^ Spider-Man: Clone Saga #4-6
  54. ^ Spider-Man: Life Story #1-4
  55. ^ Spider-Gwen vol. 2 #1
  56. ^ Spider-Gwen vol. 2
  57. ^ Edge of Spider-Verse #4. Marvel Comics.
  58. ^ Spider-Geddon #2. Marvel Comics.
  59. ^ Spider-Geddon Ghost Spider. Marvel Comics.
  60. ^ Infinity Warps: ArachKnight. Marvel Comics.
  61. ^ https://variety.com/2015/film/news/details-spider-man-appear-in-sony-and-marvel-movies-1201429039/

External links[edit]