Health effects of tea
Although health benefits have been assumed throughout the history of using Camellia sinensis as a common beverage, there is no high-quality evidence that tea confers significant benefits. In clinical research over the early 21st century, tea has been studied extensively for its potential to lower the risk of human diseases, but none of this research is conclusive as of 2017.
By constituents or substances
Aluminum, iron and other metals
Tea drinking accounts for a high proportion of aluminum in the human diet. The levels are safe, but there has been some concern that aluminum traces may be associated with Alzheimer's disease. A 2013 study additionally indicated that some teas contained lead (mostly Chinese) and aluminum (Indian/Sri Lanka blends, China). There is still insufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions on this subject.
Most studies have found no association between tea intake and iron absorption. However, drinking excessive amounts of black tea may inhibit the absorption of iron, and may harm people with anaemia.
The fluoride content of a tea leaf depends on the leaf picking method used and the fluoride content of the soil from which it has been grown; tea plants absorb this element at a greater rate than other plants. Care in the choice of the location where the plant is grown may reduce the risk. It is speculated that hand-picked tea would contain less fluoride than machine-harvested tea, because there is a much lower chance of harvesting older leaves during the harvest process. A 2013 British study of 38 teas found that cheaper UK supermarket tea blends had the highest levels of fluoride with about 580 mg per kilogram, green teas averaged about 397 mg per kg and pure blends about 132 mg per kg. The researchers suggested that economy teas may use older leaves which contain more fluoride. They calculated a person drinking a litre of economy tea per day would consume about 6 mg of fluoride, above the recommended average dietary intake level of 3–4 mg of fluoride per day, but below the maximum tolerable amount of 10 mg of fluoride per day. Brick tea, made from fallen leaves, old leaves and stems has the highest levels.
Tea contains oxalate, overconsumption of which can cause kidney stones, as well as binding with free calcium in the body. The bioavailability of oxalate from tea is low, thus a possible negative effect requires a large intake of tea. Massive black tea consumption has been linked to kidney failure due to its high oxalate content (acute oxalate nephropathy).
Theanine and caffeine
Tea also contains theanine and the stimulant caffeine at about 3% of its dry weight, translating to between 30 mg and 90 mg per 8 oz (250 ml) cup depending on type, brand and brewing method. Tea also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline. Dry tea has more caffeine by weight than dry coffee; nevertheless, more dry coffee than dry tea is used in typical drink preparations, which results in a cup of brewed tea containing significantly less caffeine than a cup of coffee of the same size.
The caffeine in tea is a mild diuretic. However, the British Dietetic Association has suggested that tea can be used to supplement normal water consumption, and that "the style of tea and coffee and the amounts we drink in the UK are unlikely to have a negative effect [on hydration]".
Drinking caffeinated tea may improve mental alertness. There is preliminary evidence that the caffeine from long-term tea (or coffee) consumption provides a small amount of protection against the progression of dementia or Alzheimer's disease during aging, although the results across numerous studies were inconsistent.
The US National Cancer Institute reports that in epidemiological studies and the few clinical trials of tea for the prevention of cancer, the results have been inconclusive. The institute "does not recommend for or against the use of tea to reduce the risk of any type of cancer." ... "Inconsistencies in study findings regarding tea and cancer risk may be due to variability in tea preparation, tea consumption, the bioavailability of tea compounds (the amounts that can be absorbed by the body), lifestyle differences, and individual genetic differences." Though there is some positive evidence for risk reduction of breast, prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancers with green tea, it is weak and inconclusive.
Meta-analyses of observational studies have concluded that black tea consumption does not appear to protect against the development of oral cancers in Asian or Caucasian populations, the development of esophageal cancer or prostate cancer in Asian populations, or the development of lung cancer.
In preliminary long-term clinical studies, black tea consumption showed evidence for providing a small, reduced risk of stroke, whereas, in another review, green tea and black tea did not have significant effects on the risk of coronary heart disease. Two reviews of randomized controlled trials concluded that long-term consumption of black tea slightly lowers systolic and diastolic blood pressures (about 1–2 mmHg), a finding based on limited evidence. A 2013 Cochrane review found some evidence of benefit from tea consumption on cardiovascular disease, though more research is needed.
Although green tea is commonly believed to be a weight loss aid, there is no good evidence that its long-term consumption has any meaningful benefit in helping overweight or obese people to lose weight, or that it helps to maintain a healthy body weight. Use of green tea for attempted weight loss carries a small risk of adverse effects, such as nausea, constipation, and stomach discomfort.
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