History and profile
Japanese anarchist Kōtoku Shūsui and Toshihiko Sakai founded Heimin Shimbun in 1903. Kōtoku Shūsui also served as one of the paper's editors. By the beginning of 1904, it was Tokyo's leading publication advocating socialism. Eighty-two people eventually expressed their allegiance to socialism in this publication. Two of those people, Uchiyama Gudō and Kōtoku Shusui, were convicted and executed in the High Treason Incident. Multiple issues of the newspaper were banned by the Meiji government because they were deemed politically offensive. The editors were arrested, fined, and jailed. The paper ceased publication in 1905. The last issue, published in red, was printed on 18 January 1905. After the disappearance of this paper, the socialist antiwar movement disappeared as well.
- Louis G. Perez (2013). Japan at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-59884-741-3. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- James L. Huffman (31 October 2013). Modern Japan: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-135-63490-2. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- Victoria 1998, p. 41.
- Victoria 1998, p. 42.
- Victoria, Brian (1998). Zen at War. Weatherhill.