Help:IPA/Astur-Leonese

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Leonese, Asturian, Extremaduran and Mirandese pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ast}}, {{IPA-le}}, {{IPA-mwl}}, {{IPA-ext}}, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

IPA Consonants
Asturias A

Province of León
L

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
 M 
Examples English approximation
b b bota, vida / bida best
ɸ ː abdicar Japanese Fumiko (A), best (M)
β β β la vida / la bida, cabra between baby and bevy
ɸː las vidas / las bidas between baby and bevy (A, M), Japanese Fumiko (E)
d de, onda date
ð ð ð sedo, padre other
θː desde other (A, M), thing (E)
f ɸ f fueu face (A, M), Japanese Fumiko (E)
h fierro / hierro / fiêrro face (A, M), hope (E)
ʰ nafta
[example needed] face
ɡ ɡ gata, anguila got
x ŋ digno, ac Scottish loch (A), sing (E), got (M)
ɣ ɣ ɣ agora, águila between ago and ahold
xː (d)esgracia / desgraça between ago and ahold (A, M), Scottish loch (E)
ʝ h ʎ muyer / mujer / mulhier beyond (A), hope (E), million (M)
ʝ j oye / oyi beyond
ɟʝ ʒ cónyuxe / cónyuji / cónjuge endure (A), injure (E), rouge (M)
k cun, que, cual / qual scan
l salir, alto lip
l[1] bottle
ʎ ʎ llingua / lhéngua million
ʎ [example needed][2]
m mes, amar mother
n naide, sana need
ŋ pinga, en, álbum / álbun[3] sing
ɲ añus / anhos canyon
p pero spouse
r rato, carro rolled r
ɾ ɾ ɾ trato, caro, (E) alto US ladder
r mar US ladder (A, M), rolled r (E)
s s sol, pasu / passo sack
ʰ estar / estal / star bust (A, M), hope (E)
ð casa / cada sack (A), other (M), zebra (E)
z ʱ esmeráu / smerado quiz (A, M), hope (E)
t tolos, ocho / oito stand
chano, ocho / oito chop
v ʱ v afgano of (A, M), hope (E)
θ ː d admira, ritmo thing (A), date (M)
θ cielos thing (A, E), sack (M)
h paz / paç thing (A), hope (E), bus (M)
ð decir / idel / dezir thing (A), other (E), zebra (M)
ð ʱ paz / paç de la tierra smooth (A), hope (E), quiz (M)
ʃ s ʃ xorda / sorda shop (A, M), sack (E)
h caxa / caja shop (A, M), hope (E)
ʒ axunto / ajunto, orixe / ourige shop (A), hope (E), rouge (M)
ʒ ɦ [example needed] rouge (A, M), ahold (E)
IPA Dialectal consonants[clarification needed]
h ierro ham
ɖ ḷḷingua, patsuezu
(in some local orthographies)[4]
guard
ɖʐ job
ʈʂ chop
ts otso (ocho / oito) pizza
IPA Vowels
Asturias A

Province of León
L

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
 M 
Examples English approximation
a a cacho, pá father
ɐ cachico tub
e e senu / seno, pie / piê pay
ɛ bezu / beç, sé bet
ɨ cebada roses
i chícharo see
o o puerta / puôrta cold
ɔ home, abó thought
ʊ costiella / costiêlha influence
u pruma food
IPA Final reduced vowels[5]
a ɐ [example needed] tub
ɪ ɨ [example needed] roses
ʊ [example needed] influence
IPA Dialectal vowels
ɛ [example needed] bet
ɔ [example needed] dog
 
IPA Semivowels[6]
Asturias A

Province of León
L

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
M
Examples English approximation
j fierro / fiêrro you / boy
w puerta / puôrta wine / cow
 
IPA Suprasegmentals
Asturias A

Province of León
L

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
M
Examples Explanation
ˈ [example needed] primary stress, as in explanation
ˌ [example needed] secondary stress, as in explanation
. [example needed] syllable break, as in reuse
ː ː ː [example needed] consonant gemination
esti [ˈeʰtːɪ]
IPA Diacritics
◌̃ antes, cun[7] nasal vowel[7]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Mirandese, the article l (the) is pronounced [l̩] (phonemically /ɨl/).
  2. ^ Found in some southern areas in which Extremaduran is spoken.[1]
  3. ^ In Extremaduran, /n/ is the only final consonant that is always pronounced.
  4. ^ Varies from a voiced retroflex affricate to a voiceless retroflex affricate and, in southwestern Asturian dialects, a voiced retroflex plosive.
  5. ^ Many dialects allow only /a/, /i/ and /u/ in final unstressed syllables.
  6. ^ The semivowels [j] and [w] can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs.
  7. ^ a b Mirandese has the following nasal vowels: /ɐ̃/, /ɛ̃/, /ĩ/, /ɨ̃/, /õ/ and /ũ/.

References[edit]

Leonese

  • Asociación Cultural Faceira (2012). Xurdir. Guía gramatical de leonés (in Spanish). Asociación Cultural Faceira.
  • "Curso basico de Llionés" (in Spanish).

Asturian

  • García Arias, Xosé Lluis (2003). Gramática histórica de la lengua asturiana (in Spanish). Academia de la Llingua Asturiana.
  • "Gramática de la Llingua Asturiana" (PDF) (in Asturian).

Extremaduran

Mirandese