Help:IPA/Thai

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These charts illustrate International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols used for pronunciations of the Central Thai and Southern Thai or particularly Ayutthaya dialect (Standard Thai), Nakhon Si Thammarat dialect (Standard Southern Thai) and Krungthep[1] dialect (Most prestige dialect) in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-th}}, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants
IPA Thai English approximation
Initials
b bash
d ฎ,ด ado
f ฝ,ฟ food
h[2] ห,ฮ head
j[3] ,[4]ย,อย,หย yak
k[5] scan
[6] ข,ฃ,ค,ฅ,ฆ can
l[7] ล,ฬ,หล better
m ม,หม much
n ณ,น,หน not
ŋ[8] ง,หง singer
ɲ[9] [10] canyon
p span
ผ,พ,ภ pan
r[11] ร,หร trilled r
s ซ,ศ,ษ,ส sue
t ฏ,ต stable
ฐ,ฑ,ฒ,ถ,ท,ธ table
[12] let you; Pinyin beijing
tɕʰ[13] ฉ,ช,ฌ cheese; Pinyin qing
w[14] ว,หว way
ʔ อ, ะ the catch in uh'-oh
Finals
k ก, ข, ค, ฆ doctor
m ham
n ญ,ณ,น,ร,ล,ฬ can
ŋ wing
p บ,ป,พ,ฟ,ภ apt
t จ,ช,ซ,ฌ,ฎ,ฏ,ฐ,ฑ,ฒ,
ด,ต,ถ,ท,ธ,ศ,ษ,ส
catnip
w[15] wow
j[16] gay
Vowels
IPA Thai[17] English approximation
Short vowels[18]
a ◌ะ, ◌ั◌ cut
e เ◌ะ, เ◌็◌ mate
ɛ แ◌ะ, แ◌็◌ bat
i ◌ิ, ◌ิ◌ happy
o โ◌ะ, ◌◌ boat
ɔ เ◌าะ, ◌็อ◌ off
u ◌ุ, ◌ุ◌ shoot
ɯ ◌ึ, ◌ึ◌ Somewhat like North American good.
[u] said with unrounded lips
ɤ เ◌อะ the
Long vowels
◌า, ◌า◌ bra
เ◌, เ◌◌ play
ɛː แ◌, แ◌◌ man
◌ี, ◌ี◌ green
โ◌, โ◌◌ go
ɔː ◌อ, ◌อ◌ dog
◌ู, ◌ู, moon
ɯː ◌ือ, ◌ื◌ Roughly like good
ɤː เ◌อ, เ◌ิ◌ fur
Diphthongs[19][20]
iaʔ, iəʔ เ◌ียะ idea (shorter)
ia, iə เ◌ีย, เ◌ีย◌ idea
uaʔ, uəʔ ◌ัวะ poor (shorter)
ua, uə ◌ัว, ◌ว◌ poor (British English)
ɯaʔ, ɯəʔ เ◌ือะ pure (shorter)
ɯa, ɯə เ◌ือ, เ◌ือ◌ pure (British English)
Tone
Central Thai[21] Broad
transcription
Narrow transcription
Ayutthaya Krungthep Suphanburi
mid (อา) = āː [aː˧] [aː˨] or [aː˦] [aː˧] or [aː˧˨]
low (อ่า) àː [aː˨˩] [aː˩] [aː˨˩]
falling (อ้า) âː [aː˦˩] [aː˥˩] or [aː˧˩] [aː˦˥˨]
high (อ๊า) áː [aː˦˥] [aː˥] [aː˦˥˦] or [aː˦˥]
rising (อ๋า) ǎː [aː˨˩˦] [aː˩˥] [aː˨˨˩˥]
Southern Thai[22] Nakhon Si Thammarat accent rules Narrow
transcription
First tone An initial consonant class "high" with long sound,
and a initial consonant class "low" after the word.
[˦˥˧]
An initial consonant class "high" with short sound,
and a initial consonant class "low"
with [k̚], [t̚], [p̚] finals after the word.
[˨˦]
Second tone An initial consonant class "high" both short long sound,
and a initial consonant class "low" after the word.
[˦]
Third tone An initial consonant class "middle" long sound. [˧˦˧]
An initial consonant class "middle"
short sound with [k̚], [t̚], [p̚] finals.
[˧˦]
Fourth tone An initial consonant class "middle"
both short long sound.
[˧]
Fifth tone An initial consonant class "low" with head word. [˨˧˨]
Sixth tone An initial consonant class "low" long sound. [˨˦]
Seventh tone An initial consonant class "low" short sound. [˨˩]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Don't misunderstand between Thonburi accent (linguist called Bangkok accent), this accent refer a Capital accent of Thai of Teochew origin.
  2. ^ For the Southern Thai, allophone with x.
  3. ^ For the Central Thai, in Capital accents replaced by ɹ̠˔, particular Krungthep accent are ɹ̠˔~ʒ and in Bandon accent are ɹ̠˔~.
  4. ^ ญ not mean j for some Southern Thai, Upper Central Thai dialects and Khorat Thai
  5. ^ For the Central Thai, Capital accents are allophone with g~.
  6. ^ For the Central Thai, Capital accents are allophone with g~, in Upper Central Thai accents are not exist and also used x.
  7. ^ For the Central Thai (exclude Khorat Thai) and Southern Thai ล,ฬ,หล sound often transcribed /l/ for convenience, see ɾ; In Khorat Thai refer l
  8. ^ For the Southern Thai replaced by ɧ.
  9. ^ In Central Thai, not present in Central Plain (include Standard Thai), Capital, some Upper Central Thai and Southwestern accents.
  10. ^ Southern Thai and Khorat Thai only
  11. ^ For the Central Thai, Capital dialects likes Krungthep, Photharam, Hatyai and Bandon accents allophone with ɹ, in Khorat Thai and replaced by ɾ.
  12. ^ For the Central Thai, replaced by ts in Capital accents, particular Krungthep accent. For Southern Thai, many accent replaced by c (include Nakhon Si Thammarat accent).
  13. ^ For the Central Thai, replaced by tsʰ~ʃ~ in Capital accents. For Southern Thai, many accent replaced by (include Nakhon Si Thammarat accent).
  14. ^ For the Central Thai, replaced by ʋ in Capital accents. For the Southern Thai, replaced by ɴ
  15. ^ For the Central Thai, replaced by ʋ in Capital accents. For the Southern Thai, every dialects replaced by ʋ
  16. ^ For the Central Thai, not exist in Capital accents and replaced by i.
  17. ^ Diacritics are shown on a dotted circle "◌".
  18. ^ In Thai script, the signs ◌ะ are respectively used to indicate a glottal stop after the vowel.
  19. ^ More diphthongs occur in the pattern /Vw/ or /Vj/: /aj, aːj, aw, aːw, iw, uj, uːj, ew, eːw, ɛːw, ɤːj, oːj, ɔːj, iow, uɛj, ɯɛj/.
  20. ^ Each first element represents a Thai diphthong, with /a/ as the ending vowel (according to Tingsabadh, Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993). "Thai". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 23 (1): 24–28. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746.).
  21. ^ In contrast to Pinyin romanization for Mandarin, Tones for Central Thai romanization uses diacritics in the same way as the IPA.
  22. ^ Unlike common Sinitic languages, Southern Thai language are only exception from Thai languages which not be fixed-tones language, instead they are pitch-accent language, every tones depend on initial consonant's class, vowel length and final consonant's length. Every tone marks in Thai script only apply for Central Thai and be ineffective to Southern Thai