The HMG proteins are subdivided into 3 superfamilies each containing a characteristic functional domain:
- HMGA – contains an AT-hook domain
- HMGB – contains a HMG-box domain
- HMGN – contains a nucleosomal binding domain
- Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
- TCF Transcription Factors
- Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1
- T Cell Transcription Factor 1
HMG proteins are thought to play a significant role in various human disorders. Disruptions and rearrangements in the genes coding for some of the HMG proteins are associated with some common benign tumors. Antibodies to HMG proteins are found in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The SRY gene on the Y Chromosome, responsible for male sexual differentiation, contains an HMG-Box domain. A member of the HMG family of proteins, HMGB1, has also been shown to have an extracellular activity as a chemokine, attracting neutrophils and mononuclear inflammatory cells to the infected liver. The high-mobility group protein such as HMO1  alters DNA architecture by binding, bending and looping. Furthermore, these HMG-box DNA-binding proteins increase the flexibility of the DNA upon binding.
- Rajeswari MR, Jain A (2002). "High-mobility-group chromosomal proteins, HMGA1 as potential tumour markers" (PDF). Current Science. 82 (7): 838–844.
- Johns EB (1982). The HMG chromosomal proteins. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-386050-7.
- Sitia G, Iannacone M, Müller S, Bianchi ME, Guidotti LG (January 2007). "Treatment with HMGB1 inhibitors diminishes CTL-induced liver disease in HBV transgenic mice". J. Leukoc. Biol. 81 (1): 100–7. doi:10.1189/jlb.0306173. PMID 16935945.
- Murugesapillai, Divakaran; McCauley, Micah J.; Huo, Ran; Nelson Holte, Molly H.; Stepanyants, Armen; Maher, L. James; Israeloff, Nathan E.; Williams, Mark C. (2014). "DNA bridging and looping by HMO1 provides a mechanism for stabilizing nucleosome-free chromatin". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (14): 8996–9004. doi:10.1093/nar/gku635. PMC 4132745. PMID 25063301.
- Murugesapillai, Divakaran; McCauley, Micah J.; Maher, L. James; Williams, Mark C. (2017). "Single-molecule studies of high-mobility group B architectural DNA bending proteins". Biophysical Reviews. 9: 17–40. doi:10.1007/s12551-016-0236-4. PMC 5331113.
- HMG nomenclature home page
- High+Mobility+Group+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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