History of Antigua and Barbuda
The history of Antigua and Barbuda can be separated into three distinct eras. In the first, the islands were inhabited by three successive Amerindian societies. The islands were neglected by the first wave of European colonisation, but were settled by England in 1632. Under British control, the islands witnessed an influx of both Britons and African slaves. In 1981, the islands were granted independence as the modern state of Antigua and Barbuda.
- 1 Pre-Columbian settlements (2900 BC–17th century)
- 2 European colonisation (1632–1981)
- 3 Independent Antigua and Barbuda (1981–present)
- 4 Local literature
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Pre-Columbian settlements (2900 BC–17th century)
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Antigua was first settled by pre-agricultural Amerindians known as "Archaic People" (although they are commonly, but erroneously known in Antigua as Siboney, a pre-ceramic Cuban people). The earliest settlements on the island date to 2900 BC. They were succeeded by ceramic-using agriculturalist Saladoid people who migrated up the island chain from Venezuela. They were later replaced by Arawakan speakers around 1200 AD and around 1500 by Island Caribs.
The Arawaks were the first well-documented group of Antiguans. They paddled to the island by canoe (piragua) from Venezuela, and were ejected by the Caribs—another people indigenous to the area. Arawaks introduced agriculture to Antigua and Barbuda, raising, among other crops, the famous Antiguan "black" pineapple. They also cultivated various other foods including:
- sweet potatoes (white with firmer flesh than the bright orange "sweet potato" used in the United States)
Some of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, still play an important role in Antiguan cuisine.
For example, a popular Antiguan dish, Ducuna (DOO-koo-NAH), is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes, flour and spices. In addition, one of the Antiguan staple foods, fungee (FOON-ji), is a cooked paste made of cornmeal and water.
The bulk of the Arawaks left Antigua about 1100 AD. Those who remained were subsequently raided by the Caribs. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies—enslaving some and cannibalising others.
The Catholic Encyclopedia does make it clear that the Spanish explorers had some difficulty identifying and differentiating between the various native peoples they encountered. As a result, the number and types of ethnic-tribal-national groups in existence at the time may be much more varied and numerous than the two mentioned.
According to A Brief History of the Caribbean (Jan Rogozinski, Penguin Putnam, Inc September 2000), European and African diseases, malnutrition and slavery eventually destroyed the vast majority of the Caribbean's native population. No researcher has conclusively proven any of these causes as the real reason for the destruction of West Indian natives. Some historians believe that the psychological stress of slavery may also have played a part in the massive number of native deaths while in servitude. Others believe that the reportedly abundant, but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to severe malnutrition of the "Indians" who were used to a diet fortified with protein from sea-life.
The Indigenous West Indians made sea vessels that they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean. As a result, Caribs and Arawaks populated much of South American and the Caribbean Islands. Relatives of the Antiguan Arawaks and Caribs still live in various countries in South America, notably Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. The smaller remaining native populations in the West Indies maintain a pride in their heritage.
European colonisation (1632–1981)
Christopher Columbus sighted islands in 1493 during his second voyage naming the larger one Santa Maria de la Antigua. However, early attempts by Europeans to settle the islands failed due to the Caribs' excellent defenses. England succeeded in colonising the islands in 1632, with Thomas Warner as the first governor. Settlers raised tobacco, indigo, ginger and sugarcane as cash crops. Sir Christopher Codrington established the first large sugar estate in Antigua in 1674, and leased Barbuda to raise provisions for his plantations. Barbuda's only town is named after him. In the fifty years after Codrington established his initial plantation, the sugar industry became so profitable that many farmers replaced other crops with sugar, making it the economic backbone of the islands.
Slavery was common in Barbuda in the 1700s and until 1834. The island was a source of slaves for other locations, too. No new slaves had arrived on the island since the mid 1700s but their population grew naturally. An estimate in 1977 by Lowenthal and Clark indicated that during 1779 to 1834 the number of slaves exported totalled 172; most were taken to Antigua but 37 went to the Leeward and Windward islands and some to the southern US. Several slave rebellions took place on the island, with the most serious in 1834-5. Britain emancipated slaves in most of its colonies in 1834, but that did not include Barbuda, so the island then freed its own slaves. For some years thereafter, the freed slaves had little opportunity of survival on their own because of limited agricultural land and the lack of available credit to buy some. Hence, they continued to work on the plantations for nominal wages or lived in shantytowns and worked as occasional labourers. Sugar cane production remained the primary economy for over a century.
During the 18th century, Antigua was used as the headquarters of the British Royal Navy Caribbean fleet. English Harbour Dockyard, as it came to be called, a sheltered and well-protected deepwater port, was the main base and facilities there were greatly expanded during the later 18th century. Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson commanded the British fleet for much of this time, and made himself unpopular with local merchants by enforcing the Navigation Act, a British ruling that only British-registered ships could trade with British colonies. As the United States were no longer British colonies, the act posed a problem for merchants, who depended on trade with the fledgling country.
With all others in the British Empire, Antiguan slaves were emancipated in 1834, but remained economically dependent upon the plantation owners. Economic opportunities for the new freedmen were limited by a lack of surplus farming land, no access to credit and an economy built on agriculture rather than manufacturing. Poor labour conditions persisted until 1939 when a member of a royal commission urged the formation of a trade union movement.
The Antigua Trades and Labour Union, formed shortly afterward, became the political vehicle for Vere Cornwall Bird who became the union's president in 1943. The Antigua Labour Party (ALP), formed by Bird and other trade unionists, first ran candidates in the 1946 elections and became the majority party in 1951 beginning a long history of electoral victories.
Voted out of office in the 1971 general elections that swept the progressive labour movement into power, Bird and the ALP returned to office in 1976.
Behind the late 20th century reviving and re-specifying of the place of African-Antiguans and Barbudans in the cultural life of the society, is a history of race/ethnic relations that systematically excluded them. A colonial framework was established by the English soon after their initial settlement of Antigua in 1623.
Mixed-race relationships and later immigration resulted by the late 19th century in the emergence of five distinct and carefully ranked race/ethnic groups. Among themselves, there were divisions between British Antiguans and non-creolised British.
Immediately below the British, were the mulattoes, a mixed-race group resulting from unions between, generally, white European males and enslaved African women, many of which took place in the years before the expansion of enslaved African population. Mulattoes were lighter in shade than the masses of Africans. Some white fathers had their sons educated or trained in crafts. They sometimes benefited them in other ways, which led to the development of a separate class. Mulattoes gradually distinguished themselves from the masses of enslaved Africans. They developed complex ideologies of shade to legitimate their claims to higher status. These ideologies of shade paralleled in many ways British ideologies of white supremacy.[original research?]
Next in this hierarchy were the Portuguese— 2500 of whom migrated as workers from Madeira between 1847 and 1852 because of a severe famine. Many established small businesses and joined the ranks of what was by then the mulatto middle class. The British never really considered Portuguese as their equals,[original research?] so they were not allowed into their ranks. Among Portuguese Antiguans and Barbudans, status differences move along a continuum of varying degrees of assimilation into the Anglicised practices of the dominant group.[original research?]
Below the Portuguese were the Middle Easterners, who began migrating to Antigua and Barbuda around the turn of the 20th century. Starting as itinerant traders, they soon worked their way into the middle strata of the society. Although Middle Easterners came from a variety of areas in the Middle East, as a group they are usually referred to as Syrians.
The Irish were first sent to the island as indentured and unpaid servants by Oliver Cromwell during the early to mid 17th century. They were treated harshly and had to live in depraved conditions. Many of Irish died from severe sunstroke and sickness and those who survived lived in extreme poverty. Irish Indentured servant were replaced by African slaves in the mid to late 17th century as they were more suited to working in the sun and heat. The Irish were used by the British as a buffer group between them and the African slaves and became overseers on sugar plantations on the island. Many of the Irish had children with the Africans, which is why many Antiguans and Barbudans have Irish surnames to this day.
Sixth and finally were the African-Antiguans and Barbudans who were located at the bottom of this hierarchy. Enslaved and forcefully transported, Africans started arriving in Antigua and Barbuda in large numbers during the 1670s. Very quickly they came to constitute the majority of the population. As they entered this hierarchy, Africans were profoundly racialised. They ceased being Ashanti, Ewe, Yoruba and became Negroes or blacks. In the 20th century, the colonial hierarchy gradually began to come apart as a result of universal education and better economic opportunity.[original research?] This process gave rise to Africans reaching the highest strata of society and government.
Independent Antigua and Barbuda (1981–present)
The islands achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1981, becoming the nation of Antigua and Barbuda. However, it remains part of the Commonwealth of Nations, and remains a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Antigua and Barbuda.
In 1997, Prime Minister Lester Bird announced that a group of ecologically sensitive islands just off Antigua's northeastern coast, previously proposed for national park status, were being turned over to Malaysian developers. The Guiana Island Development Project deal, calling for a 1000-room hotel, an 18-hole golf course and a world-class casino, sparked widespread criticism by environmentalists, minority members in parliament and the press. The issue came to a head when a local resident shot the PM's brother. Today, the proposed development is mired in lawsuits and politics.
The ALP won renewed mandates in the general elections in 1984 and 1989. In the 1989 elections, the ruling ALP won all but two of the 17 seats. During elections in March 1994, power passed from Vere Bird to his son, Lester Bird, but remained within the ALP which won 11 of the 17 parliamentary seats. The United Progressive Party won the 2004 elections and Baldwin Spencer became Prime Minister, removing from power the longest-serving elected government in the Caribbean. In 2014 the Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party regained power from a massive win with the leader being the "World Boss", Gaston A. Browne. A snap election was called 3 years later, and the Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party led by the incumbent leader Hon. Gaston Browne dominated the elections with a landslide victory of 15-1-1.
There are few notable authors native to the Antigua. One author, James Carlisle, also served as Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda from 1993 to 2007. Jamaica Kincaid, a notable author, has published over 20 pieces of work. Kincaid is largely influenced by her life both on the island and overseas in the United States. Kincaid's work reflects the circumstances of living in a former crown colony until independence in 1981. She was educated under British colonial education, and as such has been described as a prominent anti colonialist author. Born in 1949 and moving to the United States in 1966 at 17, Kincaid's experience of living under foreign control through, seeing Antigua’s transition to independence and in an imperial country is expressed in some of her most notable books, Lucy and A Small Place.
Jamaica Kincaid themes of tourism and gender
After her first collection was published with great success in 1983, Kincaid quickly began being thought of as one of the most important fiction writers of the new decade. For many, Kincaid is considered to be a prominent postcolonial author, offering a novelistic approach to the history and contemporary life on the island. Many of Kincaid's books focus around themes of modernity, postmodernity, and globalization and the relationship and effects of colonialism to the "native". Literary critics have suggested her work "A Small Place" which has been described as "postcolonial literary text about the impact of tourism in the Caribbean nation of Antigua", focuses on the "exploitation of the Caribbean islands by colonialism and the neocolonialist abuses of the tourism industry". Kincaid's work has been associated by literary critics with Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak's argument that literature is an agent of change. Doing so, suggests her works aim to challenge the asymmetry is actions surrounding imperialism, colonialism, and tourism. Kincaid also largely focuses her writing on gender, often alluding to a discourse of female gender and colonial relations, especially those of black women. She reveals the importance of place, time, and positionality in the representation of race, class and gender.
Much of Kincaid's work has been deemed autobiographical and influenced by Subaltern Studies, including A Small Place, and Lucy*. It has been argued, from multiple literary critics, that Kincaid uses the capacities of autobiography to express a consciousness of marginalized groups in a postcolonial setting.
Kincaid's pointed style of writing is largely critiqued as an attack on colonialism and corruption that has been said to "back readers into the corner". Kincaid has also been critiqued for imposing mythical ideas of "noble enslavement" of Antiguans as an attempt to escape from common ideas of humanity and consequences. Kincaid constructs her texts to positions Antiguans as powerless and thus evading their true lack of eloquence and power. For critics, both literary and postcolonial, this becomes and issue because it tends to dismiss or lessen the actions of subjects such as for example to corruption and organized crime within Antigua and Barbuda's government. Kincaid has also been critiqued, especially by other black scholars, as practicing a muted form of Orientalism in her representations of other ex-colonies as all the same. She has been accused of using colonial rhetoric in her writing, which reflects the subjection Antigua's have faced through colonization and how such practices such as British education have influenced the representation of others in the eyes of Antigua's.
- Antigua and Barbuda
- Antigua Carnival
- British colonisation of the Americas
- French colonisation of the Americas
- History of the Americas
- History of the British West Indies
- History of North America
- History of the Caribbean
- Politics of Antigua and Barbuda
- List of Prime Ministers of Antigua and Barbuda
- Spanish colonisation of the Americas
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/countries-areas/ (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets).
- Crocker, John. "Barbuda Eyes Statehood and Tourists". The Washington Post. 28 January 1968. p. E11.
- Fleck, Bryan. "Discover Unspoiled: Barbuda". Everybody's Brooklyn. 31 October 2004. p. 60.
- Sheridan, Richard B. (1974). Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623-1775. Canoe Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-976-8125-13-2.
- Leonard, Thomas M. (27 October 2005). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Psychology Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-57958-388-0.
- "History". Barbudaful. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- "Government of Antigua and Barbuda". 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Hunter, Brian (1996). The statesman's year-book : a statistical, political and economic account of the states of the world for the year 1996-1997. Palgrave Connect (133rd ed.). London: Macmillan. ISBN 9780230271258. OCLC 609405750.
- Farrior, Angela D. "Writers of the Caribbean - Jamaica Kincaid". core.ecu.edu. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Kincaid, Jamaica; Kreilkamp, Ivan (1996). "An Interview with Jamaica Kincaid". Contemporary Literary Criticism. Publishers Weekly. 137: 54–56.
- Heirman, Jo Gaby Marc; Klooster, Jacqueline. The ideologies of lived space in literary texts, ancient and modern. Gent. ISBN 9789038221021. OCLC 863434089.
- Osagie, Iyunolu; Buzinde, Christine N. "Culture and postcolonial resistance". Annals of Tourism Research. 38 (1): 210–230. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2010.08.004.
- 1967-, Braziel, Jana Evans, (2009). Caribbean genesis : Jamaica Kincaid and the writing of new worlds. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780791476536. OCLC 317416166.
- Larkin, Lesley (1 April 2012). "Reading and Being Read: Jamaica Kincaid's A Small Place as Literary Agent". Callaloo. 35 (1): 193–211. doi:10.1353/cal.2012.0009. ISSN 1080-6512.
- Moira., Ferguson, (1993). Colonialism and gender relations from Mary Wollstonecraft to Jamaica Kincaid : East Caribbean connections. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231082223. OCLC 27013047.
- Moira., Ferguson, (1994). Jamaica Kincaid : where the land meets the body. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. ISBN 0813915201. OCLC 29878359.
- Byerman, Keith E. (1995). "Anger in a Small Place: Jamaica Kincaid's Cultural Critique of Antigua". College Literature. 22 (1): 91–102. JSTOR 25112166.
- Griffith, Ivelaw L. (1997). "Illicit Arms: Trafficking, Corruption and Governance in the Caribbean". Dickinson Journal of International Law. 15: 494.
- Rastogi, Pallavi (6 February 2015). ""The Leeches Are the Least of the Worries": Blankscapes and Another Other in Jamaica Kincaid's Among Flowers and Biyi Bandele's The King's Rifle". Research in African Literatures. 46 (1): 19–36. ISSN 1527-2044.