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Anti-Slavery Movement in the U.S.
The anti-slavery movement in the U.S. dates back to colonial times. An early political success for this movement was that of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which prohibited human slavery in the Northwest Territory, an area which eventually became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Anti-slavery forces found a home in the Whig Party (United States) before creation of the Liberty Party (United States, 1840) and other dedicated anti-slavery parties. After collapse of the Whig Party, remnants of the Whig, Liberty, and other parties coalesced into the Republican Party (United States), which, in turn, succeeded in abolishing the institution of human slavery throughout the United States by way of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
At the time of the passage of the 13th Amendment, "slavery" referred only to human slavery. However, former human slaves were among the first to make an express comparison between human slavery and the slavery of other species.
In the 1900s, coinage of the term "vegan" by Donald Watson of the The Vegan Society as well as numerous other factors gave new prominence to animal-related issues. The U.S.'s Democrats and Republicans responded to this rise with reactionary laws, such as the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act of 2006.
Emergence of the Humane Party
Against this backdrop, the Humane Party emerged in 2009 seeking rights and legal personhood for all animals. The party requires all candidates, officers, and board members to sign an oath abstaining from the use of animal products and services. In 2011, the party registered its first voters at WorldFest in Los Angeles, California. The party's goals include abolishing the property status of animals, banning the genetic modification of animals and uncontained release of GMOs into contact with the natural environment, guaranteeing LGBT rights, and replacing the electoral college with direct democracy.
2016 Presidential Election
On World Vegan Day, 2015, the Humane Party's former CEO Clifton Roberts, a vegan for 20 years, became the party's first Presidential candidate. On June 10, 2016, Amie "Breeze" Harper was announced as the party's vice-presidential nominee. After entering the race, Roberts said, "I am a voice of the Humane Party, a party that offers you, me, our non-human animal friends, and citizens—that are naive or unaware of the issues it addresses and the solutions it offers—an inspired and refreshing platform … A platform to live by, and a platform that I would surely die for." Roberts and Harper mainly campaigned through interviews with vegan websites. On November 8, 2016, Roberts gave his concession speech on his YouTube channel.
The Humane Party ran two candidates in the 2018 federal elections. Clifton Roberts ran for U.S. Senate in California, and Robert Mason ran for U.S. House of Representatives in Texas, District 3.
- "About the Humane Party". Humane Party. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "Northwest Ordinance (1787)".
- Holt, Michael book, The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party (1999: Oxford University Press).
- "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865) (1787)".
- E.g., Interview of Fanny BerryBorn in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938.
- "The History of Animal Protection in the United States)".
- "Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (AETA)".
- Bowie, Richard (9 November 2015). "Humane Party Nominates Vegan Presidential Candidate". VegNews. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "USA's First Animal Rights Political Party Registers First 40 Voters".
- "Will the United States abolish the property status of animals?".
- Hines, Jan (22 May 2015). "Clifton Roberts, CEO of the Humane Party on Animal Rights and the Future". Sweet Startups. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "Marianne Thieme, founder of the Party for the Animal".
- "Main Street Vegan Show Notes: August 17, 2016 — Humane Party Presidential Candidate + Elephants' Advocate".
- "Breaking: Humane Party announces Dr. Breeze Harper as Vice Presidential nominee". The Onion Knight Show. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Did You Know There's a Vegan Running for US President?".
- "FEATURE: Interview with Clifton Roberts".
- "2016 Election Results".
- "WCUW Radio: Vegan Nation Radio".
- "Two Vegan Politicians Run for Congress in 2018".
- "World Vegan Day News".
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