Ib'al

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Ib'al was the name used by Ebla in the 24th century BC to indicate a confederation of tribes occupying the steppic region south of Ebla;[1] the region included small villages and towns.[2] Qatna could have been one of the urban centers in the region.[3]

Ebla and Mari were engaged in a long war and Ib'al was drawn into;[1] during the reign of the Eblaite king Isar-Damu, repeated campaigns over the course of four years were aimed at the confederation and ended with the Ib'al defeat.[4] Following the war with Ebla, Ib'al became an Eblaite ally and acted as such during a campaign against Mari.[4] Ib'al maintained a peaceful relation with Ebla until the latter collapse,[4] and the Ebla archive mentions the names of seven of its sheikhs.[5]

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  • Biga, Maria Giovanna (2010). "War and Peace in the Kingdom of Ebla (24th Century B.C.) in the First Years of Vizier Ibbi-Zikir under the Reign of the Last King Išar-Damu". In Biga, Maria Giovanna; Liverani, Mario (eds.). Ana Turri Gimilli. Studi Dedicati al Padre Werner R. Mayer, S.J. da Amici e Allievi. Vicino Oriente. 5. Università di Roma La Sapienza. OCLC 800926141.
  • Baffi, Francesca; Peyronel, Luca (2014). "Tell Tuqan and the Matkh Basin in a Regional Perspective. Thoughts and Questions Raised by the International Conference". In Baffi, Francesca; Fiorentino, Roberto; Peyronel, Luca (eds.). Tell Tuqan Excavations and Regional Perspectives. Cultural Developments in Inner Syria from the Early Bronze Age to the Persian/Hellenistic Period. Proceedings of the International Conference May 15th-17th 2013 - Lecce. Congedo Editore. ISBN 978-8-867-66103-9.
  • Castel, Corinne (2008). "Al-Rawda. A town in the Steppe (Central Syria, Early Bronze Age IV)". In Kühne, Hartmut; Czichon, Rainer Maria; Kreppner, Florian Janoscha (eds.). Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, 29 March - 3 April 2004, Freie Universität Berlin. 2. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05757-8.
  • Morandi Bonacossi, Daniele (2009). Parr, Peter J. (ed.). "Tell Mishrifeh and its Region During The EBA IV and the EBA-MBA Transition. A First Assessment". PEF Annual. The Palestine Exploration Fund. IX: The Levant in Transition. ISBN 978-1-90435-099-6.