Indians in Israel
This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (March 2015)
Indian Jewish family
|Regions with significant populations|
|Tel Aviv, Nevatim, Shahar, Yuval, Mesilat Zion, Jerusalem, Maalot, Acre, Migdal Haemek, Tzfat, Tiberia, Kiryat Shemona, Nesher, Afula, Nazareth Illit, Beersheba, Ramla, Dimona, Yeruham, and major Israeli cities|
Non-Jews, Expats, and Older Jews: Malayalam, Marathi, Kuki, Languages of India, English
|Majority: Judaism |
Minority: Hinduism, Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism
Indians in Israel are immigrants and refugees and descendants of the Jewish immigrants and refugees of previously thriving Indian Jewish communities, who have returned to Eretz Israel, as well as economic migrants to Israel from India. Indian Jews who live in Israel include thousands of Cochin Jews and Paradesi Jews of Kerala; and thousands from the colorful communities of the Bene Israel of Maharashtra and other parts of British India and the Bene Menashe of Manipur and Mizoram.
In addition to Jewish Indians there is an expatriate and migrant population of Hindu and other non-Jewish Indian citizens, most of them employed in high tech, movie-making, construction and nursing.
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The majority of Indian Jews have "made Aliyah" (migrated) to Israel since the creation of the modern state in 1948. Jews back in the 1940s, were divided into Bene Israel and Baghdadi Jews, though the Baghdadi Jews refused to recognize the B'nei Israel as Jews, and withheld dispensing charity to them for that reason while the Bene Israel continued to dispense charity to all those in need. There are reminders of Jewish localities in Kerala still left such as Synagogues. Majority of Jews from the old British-Indian capital of Calcutta (Kolkata) have also migrated to Israel over the last seven decades.
When India became independent of Britain in 1947 and Israel established itself as a nation in 1948 and with the heightened nationalism and emphasis in the Partition of India of Hindu and Muslim identities, most of Cochin Jews emigrated from India. Generally they went to Israel (made aliyah). Many from the migrants joined the moshavim (agricultural settlements) of Nevatim, Shahar, Yuval, and Mesilat Zion. Others settled in the neighbourhood of Katamon in Jerusalem, and in Beersheba, Ramla, Dimona and Yeruham, where many Bene Israel had settled and maintained a Judeo-Marathi dialect.
Between 1948 and 1952, some 2,300 Bene Israel made Aliyah to Israel, their new and historic homeland, from India, many as refugees from predominantly Muslim lands (western parts of British India). Several rabbis refused to marry Bene Israel to other Jews, on grounds that they were not legitimate Jews. As a result of sit-down protests and hunger strikes, the Jewish Agency returned 337 individuals in several groups to India between 1952 and 1954. Most returned to Israel after several years.
In 1962, the Indian and international press reported that European-Jewish authorities in Israel had treated the Bene Israel with racism. They objected to the Chief Rabbi of Israel ruling that, before registering a marriage between Indian Jews and Jews not belonging to that community, the registering rabbi should investigate the lineage of the Indian applicant for possible non-Jewish descent. In case of doubt, they should require the applicant to perform conversion or immersion. The blatant discrimination may be related to the fact that some religious authorities believe that the Bene Israel were not fully Jewish because of having had intermarriage during their long separation from major communities of Jews. Most Israelis thought that was a convenient cover for racially based bias against Jews who were not Ashkenazi or Sephardim. Between 1962 and 1964, the Bene Israel community staged protests, and in 1964 the Israeli Rabbinate declared that the Bene Israel are "full Jews in every respect".
The Report of the High Level Commission on the Indian Diaspora reviewed life in Israel for the Bene Israel community. It noted that the city of Beersheba in Southern Israel has the largest community of Bene Israel, with a sizable one in Ramla. They operate a new form of the joint family transnationally. Generally the Bene Israel have not been politically active and have had modest means typical of many first generation arrivals in Israel. Successive generations have generally assimilated into Israel's diverse populace and contribute in numerous fields including army/intelligence, management, arts, sports and education. The Israeli state reports that they have not formed continuing economic connections to India and have limited political status in Israel. However, it is worth noting many diaspora Bene Israel maintain economic, social and cultural ties with family and friends in India, Israel the United States, the U.K. and other nation states. A periodical covering the global Bene Israel community has been continuously distributed to select community members since at least 1967.
- Eli Ben-Menachem
- Ruby Daniel
- Samson Kehimkar
- Sarah Avraham
- Ben Avram
- Eban Hyams
- Uri Benjamin
- Ofer Talker
- Idan Yaniv
- Judaism in India
- Jewish ethnic divisions
- Cochin Jews
- Paradesi Jews
- Sephardic Jews in India
- Bene Israel
- Bnei Menashe
- Bene Ephraim
- Rachel Delia Benaim, 'For India's Largest Jewish Community, One Muslim Makes All the Tombstones,' Tablet 23 February 2015.
- Nathan Katz, Who Are the Jews of India?, California University Press, 2000 pp.91ff.
- Weil, Shalva. "Lost Israelites from North-East India: Re-Traditionalisation and Conversion among the Shinlung from the Indo-Burmese Borderlands." The Anthropologist, 2004. 6(3): 219-233.
- Shulman, D. and Weil, S. (eds). Karmic Passages: Israeli Scholarship on India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008.
- Weil, Shalva 2000 India, The Larger Immigrations from Eastern Countries, Jerusalem: Ben-ZviInstitute and the Ministry of Education. (Hebrew)
- Weil, Shalva (2011). "Bene Israel". In Baskin, Judith (ed.). Cambridge Dictionary of Judaism and Jewish Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Abramov, S. Zalman (1976). Perpetual dilemma: Jewish religion in the Jewish State. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 277–278.
- Smooha, Sammy (1978). Israel: Pluralism and Conflict. University of California Press. pp. 400–401.
- "How Do the Issues in the Conversion Controversy Relate to Israel?". Jcpa.org. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- Weil, Shalva (2008). "Jews in India". In Erlich, M. Avrum (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Diaspora. Santa Barbara, USA: ABC CLIO.
- Weil, Shalva (2012). "The Bene Israel Indian Jewish Family in Transnational Context". Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 43 (1): 71–80.
- "Report of the High Level Commission on the Indian Diaspora" (PDF). Indian Diaspora.
- "The Indian Jews at the Heart of the Netanyahu-Modi Love Affair", Ha'aretz, Jan. 15, 2018